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Anchoring Junction

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C. Yan Cheng – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Drebrin and Spermatogenesis.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Haiqi Chen, Michelle W. M. Li, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    Drebrin is a family of actin-binding proteins with two known members called drebrin A and E. Apart from the ability to stabilize F-actin microfilaments via their actin-binding domains near the N-terminus, drebrin also regulates multiple cellular functions due to its unique ability to recruit multiple binding partners to a specific cellular domain, such as the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Recent studies have illustrated the role of drebrin E in the testis during spermatogenesis in particular via its ability to recruit branched actin polymerization protein known as actin-related protein 3 (Arp3), illustrating its involvement in modifying the organization of actin microfilaments at the ectoplasmic specialization (ES) which includes the testis-specific Anchoring Junction at the Sertoli-spermatid (apical ES) interface and at the Sertoli cell-cell (basal ES) interface. These data are carefully evaluated in light of other recent findings herein regarding the role of drebrin in actin filament organization at the ES. We also provide the hypothetical model regarding its involvement in germ cell transport during the epithelial cycle in the seminiferous epithelium to support spermatogenesis.

  • Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis
    Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Ying Gao, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, Wing-yee Lui, Xiang Xiao, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight Junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich Anchoring Junction), gap Junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate Junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in particular the BTB during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis.

  • Coordination of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons Supports Transport of Spermatids and Residual Bodies/Phagosomes During Spermatogenesis in the Rat Testis.
    Endocrinology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Elizabeth I. Tang, Will M. Lee, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the intricate coordination of cell Junctions, signaling proteins, and both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. Although the involvement of cytoskeletons in germ cell transport has been suggested, the precise mechanism(s) remains elusive. Based on growing evidence that actin and MT interactions underlie fundamental cellular processes, such as cell motility, it is unlikely that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons work independently to regulate germ cell transport in the testis. Using rats treated with adjudin, a potential male contraceptive that disrupts spermatid adhesion and transport in the testis, as a study model, we show herein that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons are both necessary for transport of spermatids and residual bodies/phagosomes across the seminiferous epithelium in adult rat testes. Analysis of intratubular expression of F-actin and tubulin revealed disruption of both actin and MT networks, concomitant with misdirected spermatids and phagosomes in rats treated with adjudin. Actin regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, were mislocalized and down-regulated at the actin-rich Anchoring Junction between germ and Sertoli cells (apical ectoplasmic specialization) after adjudin treatment. Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p-FAK-Tyr(407), known to regulate F-actin nucleation via actin-related protein 3, was also mislocalized and down-regulated at the apical ectoplasmic specialization, corroborating the observation of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Additionally, spatiotemporal expression of MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1, shown to be involved in MT-actin cross talk herein, was also disrupted after adjudin treatment. In summary, spermatid/phagosome transport across the epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the coordination between actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons.

Dolores D. Mruk – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis
    Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Ying Gao, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, Wing-yee Lui, Xiang Xiao, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight Junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich Anchoring Junction), gap Junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate Junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in particular the BTB during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis.

  • New insights into FAK function and regulation during spermatogenesis.
    Histology and histopathology, 2014
    Co-Authors: N Ece Gungor-ordueri, Dolores D. Mruk, Elissa W.p. Wong, Pearl P.y. Lie, Ciler Celik-ozenci, Hin-ting Wan, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during the epithelial cycle is crucial to spermatogenesis, although molecular mechanism(s) that regulate these events remain unknown. Studies have shown that spatiotemporal expression of crucial regulatory proteins during the epithelial cycle represents an efficient and physiologically important mechanism to regulate spermatogenesis without involving de novo synthesis of proteins and/or expression of genes. Herein, we critically review the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in coordinating the transport of spermatids and preleptotene spermatocytes across the epithelium and the BTB, respectively, along the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) – blood-testis barrier – basement membrane (BM) functional axis during spermatogenesis. In the testis, p-FAK-Tyr³⁸⁷ and p-FAK-Tyr⁴⁰⁷ are spatiotemporally expressed during the epithelial cycle at the actin-rich Anchoring Junction known as ES, regulating cell adhesion at the Sertoli-spermatid (apical ES) and Sertoli cell-cell (basal ES) interface. Phosphorylated forms of FAK exert their effects by regulating the homeostasis of F-actin at the ES, mediated via their effects on actin polymerization so that microfilaments are efficiently re-organized, such as from their “bundled” to “de-bundled/branched” configuration and vice versa during the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of: (i) spermatids across the epithelium, and (ii) preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. In summary, p-FAK-Tyr⁴⁰⁷ and p-FAK-Tyr³⁸⁷ are important regulators of spermatogenesis which serve as molecular switches that turn “on” and “off” adhesion function at the apical ES and the basal ES/BTB, mediated via their spatiotemporal expression during the epithelial cycle. A hypothetical model depicting the role of these two molecular switches is also proposed.

  • c-Src and c-Yes are Two Unlikely Partners of Spermatogenesis and their Roles in Blood-Testis Barrier Dynamics
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Xiang Xiao, Dolores D. Mruk, Faith L. Cheng, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    Src family kinases (SFKs), in particular c-Src and c-Yes, are nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases that mediate integrin signaling at focal adhesion complex at the cell-extracellular matrix interface to regulate cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, most notably in cancer cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that these two proto-oncogenes are integrated components of the stem cell niche and the cell-cell actin-based Anchoring Junction known as ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the: (1) Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ES and (2) Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface known as basal ES which together with tight Junctions (TJ), gap Junctions and desmosomes constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). At the stem cell niche, these SFKs regulate spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) renewal to maintain the proper population of SSC/spermatogonia for spermatogenesis. At the apical ES and the BTB, c-Src and c-Yes confer cell adhesion either by maintaining the proper phosphorylation status of integral membrane proteins at the site which in turn regulates protein-protein interactions between integral membrane proteins and their adaptors, or by facilitating androgen action on spermatogenesis via a nongenomic pathway which also modulates cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium. Herein, we critically evaluate recent findings in the field regarding the roles of these two unlikely partners of spermatogenesis. We also propose a hypothetical model on the mechanistic functions of c-Src and c-Yes in spermatogenesis so that functional experiments can be designed in future studies.

Will M. Lee – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis
    Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Ying Gao, Dolores D. Mruk, Will M. Lee, Wing-yee Lui, Xiang Xiao, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight Junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich Anchoring Junction), gap Junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate Junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in particular the BTB during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis.

  • Coordination of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons Supports Transport of Spermatids and Residual Bodies/Phagosomes During Spermatogenesis in the Rat Testis.
    Endocrinology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Elizabeth I. Tang, Will M. Lee, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the intricate coordination of cell Junctions, signaling proteins, and both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. Although the involvement of cytoskeletons in germ cell transport has been suggested, the precise mechanism(s) remains elusive. Based on growing evidence that actin and MT interactions underlie fundamental cellular processes, such as cell motility, it is unlikely that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons work independently to regulate germ cell transport in the testis. Using rats treated with adjudin, a potential male contraceptive that disrupts spermatid adhesion and transport in the testis, as a study model, we show herein that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons are both necessary for transport of spermatids and residual bodies/phagosomes across the seminiferous epithelium in adult rat testes. Analysis of intratubular expression of F-actin and tubulin revealed disruption of both actin and MT networks, concomitant with misdirected spermatids and phagosomes in rats treated with adjudin. Actin regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, were mislocalized and down-regulated at the actin-rich Anchoring Junction between germ and Sertoli cells (apical ectoplasmic specialization) after adjudin treatment. Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p-FAK-Tyr(407), known to regulate F-actin nucleation via actin-related protein 3, was also mislocalized and down-regulated at the apical ectoplasmic specialization, corroborating the observation of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Additionally, spatiotemporal expression of MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1, shown to be involved in MT-actin cross talk herein, was also disrupted after adjudin treatment. In summary, spermatid/phagosome transport across the epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the coordination between actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons.

  • Coordination of Actin- and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons Supports Transport of Spermatids and Residual Bodies/Phagosomes During Spermatogenesis in the Rat Testis
    Endocrinology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Elizabeth I. Tang, Will M. Lee, C. Yan Cheng

    Abstract:

    Abstract
    Germ cell transport across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the intricate coordination of cell Junctions, signaling proteins, and both actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. Although the involvement of cytoskeletons in germ cell transport has been suggested, the precise mechanism(s) remains elusive. Based on growing evidencethat actin and MT interactions underlie fundamental cellular processes, such as cell motility, it is unlikely that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons work independently to regulate germ cell transport in the testis. Using rats treated with adjudin, a potential male contraceptive that disrupts spermatid adhesion and transport in the testis, as a study model, we show herein that actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons are both necessary for transport of spermatids and residual bodies/phagosomes across the seminiferous epithelium in adult rat testes. Analysis of intratubular expression of F-actin and tubulin revealed disruption of both actin and MT networks, concomitant with misdirected spermatids and phagosomes in rats treated with adjudin. Actin regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 and actin-related protein 3, were mislocalized and down-regulated at the actin-rich Anchoring Junction between germ and Sertoli cells (apical ectoplasmicspecialization) after adjudin treatment. Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p-FAK-Tyr407, known to regulate F-actin nucleation via actin-related protein 3, was also mislocalized and down-regulated at the apical ectoplasmic specialization, corroborating the observation of actin cytoskeleton disruption. Additionally, spatiotemporal expression of MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1, shown to be involved in MT-actin cross talk herein, was also disrupted after adjudin treatment. In summary, spermatid/phagosome transport across the epithelium during spermatogenesis requires the coordination between actin- and MT-based cytoskeletons. (Endocrinology 157: 1644–1659, 2016)