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Anterior Posterior Axis

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Carlos F Ibanez – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor β receptor alk5 to regionalize the Anterior Posterior Axis
    EMBO Reports, 2006
    Co-Authors: Olov Andersson, Eva Reissmann, Carlos F Ibanez

    Abstract:

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) contributes to regionalize the mouse embryo along its AnteriorPosterior Axis by regulating the expression of Hox genes. The identity of the receptors that mediate GDF11 signalling during embryogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that GDF11 can interact with type I receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7, but predominantly uses ALK4 and ALK5 to activate a Smad3-dependent reporter gene. Alk5 mutant embryos showed malformations in AnteriorPosterior patterning, including the lack of expression of the Posterior determinant Hoxc10, that resemble defects found in Gdf11-null mutants. A heterozygous mutation in Alk5, but not in Alk4 or Alk7, potentiated Gdf11−/−-like phenotypes in vertebral, kidney and palate development in an Acvr2b−/− background, indicating a genetic interaction between the two receptor genes. Thus, the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor ALK5, which until now has only been associated with the biological functions of TGF-β1 to TGF-β3 proteins, mediates GDF11 signalling during embryogenesis.

  • Growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor‐β receptor ALK5 to regionalize the AnteriorPosterior Axis
    EMBO Reports, 2006
    Co-Authors: Olov Andersson, Eva Reissmann, Carlos F Ibanez

    Abstract:

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) contributes to regionalize the mouse embryo along its AnteriorPosterior Axis by regulating the expression of Hox genes. The identity of the receptors that mediate GDF11 signalling during embryogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that GDF11 can interact with type I receptors ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7, but predominantly uses ALK4 and ALK5 to activate a Smad3-dependent reporter gene. Alk5 mutant embryos showed malformations in AnteriorPosterior patterning, including the lack of expression of the Posterior determinant Hoxc10, that resemble defects found in Gdf11-null mutants. A heterozygous mutation in Alk5, but not in Alk4 or Alk7, potentiated Gdf11−/−-like phenotypes in vertebral, kidney and palate development in an Acvr2b−/− background, indicating a genetic interaction between the two receptor genes. Thus, the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor ALK5, which until now has only been associated with the biological functions of TGF-β1 to TGF-β3 proteins, mediates GDF11 signalling during embryogenesis.

Sebastian M. Shimeld – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • retinoic acid hox genes and the Anterior Posterior Axis in chordates
    BioEssays, 1996
    Co-Authors: Sebastian M. Shimeld

    Abstract:

    In vertebrate development, the HOX genes act to specify cell identity along much of the AnteriorPosterior Axis of the embryonic central nervous system. In all vertebrates examined to date, the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid is implicated in the patterning of the Anterior Posterior Axis and the induction of HOX gene expression. Two recent papers have extended the study of retinoic acid induction of HOX genes to the closest relatives of the vertebrates, amphioxus and tunicates(1,2). In both these species, exogenous retinoic acid is able to induce ectopic expression of HOX 1 genes in the Anterior central nervous system. This suggests that retinoic acid control of AnteriorPosterior Axis formation and HOX induction is not specific to vertebrates. However, in the more distantly related echinoderms and arthropods, retinoic acid does not seem to act in the same way. Thus the role of retinoic acid in AnteriorPosterior Axis specification may be a chordate innovation, perhaps linked to the evolution of another chordate character, the dorsal neural tube.

  • Retinoic acid, HOX genes and the AnteriorPosterior Axis in chordates
    BioEssays, 1996
    Co-Authors: Sebastian M. Shimeld

    Abstract:

    In vertebrate development, the HOX genes act to specify cell identity along much of the AnteriorPosterior Axis of the embryonic central nervous system. In all vertebrates examined to date, the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid is implicated in the patterning of the Anterior Posterior Axis and the induction of HOX gene expression. Two recent papers have extended the study of retinoic acid induction of HOX genes to the closest relatives of the vertebrates, amphioxus and tunicates(1,2). In both these species, exogenous retinoic acid is able to induce ectopic expression of HOX 1 genes in the Anterior central nervous system. This suggests that retinoic acid control of AnteriorPosterior Axis formation and HOX induction is not specific to vertebrates. However, in the more distantly related echinoderms and arthropods, retinoic acid does not seem to act in the same way. Thus the role of retinoic acid in AnteriorPosterior Axis specification may be a chordate innovation, perhaps linked to the evolution of another chordate character, the dorsal neural tube.

Lars Schwabe – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Time-dependent memory transformation along the hippocampal AnteriorPosterior Axis
    Nature Communications, 2018
    Co-Authors: Lisa C. Dandolo, Lars Schwabe

    Abstract:

    With time, memories undergo a neural reorganization that is linked to a transformation of detailed, episodic into more semantic, gist-like memory. Traditionally, this reorganization is thought to involve a redistribution of memory from the hippocampus to neocortical areas. Here we report a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, along its AnteriorPosterior Axis, that is related to the transformation of detailed memories into gist-like representations. We show that mnemonic representations in the Anterior hippocampus are highly distinct and that Anterior hippocampal activity is associated with detailed memory but decreases over time. Posterior hippocampal representations, however, are more gist-like at a later retention interval, and do not decline over time. These findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known systems consolidation from hippocampus to neocortex, there are changes within the hippocampus that are crucial for the temporal dynamics of memory. Detailed memories are transformed into gist-like memories over time. Here, the authors report that this change is linked to a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, such that Anterior activity supporting memory specificity declines over time while Posterior activity patterns carrying gist representations remain more stable.

  • Time-dependent memory transformation along the hippocampal AnteriorPosterior Axis.
    Nature communications, 2018
    Co-Authors: Lisa C. Dandolo, Lars Schwabe

    Abstract:

    With time, memories undergo a neural reorganization that is linked to a transformation of detailed, episodic into more semantic, gist-like memory. Traditionally, this reorganization is thought to involve a redistribution of memory from the hippocampus to neocortical areas. Here we report a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, along its AnteriorPosterior Axis, that is related to the transformation of detailed memories into gist-like representations. We show that mnemonic representations in the Anterior hippocampus are highly distinct and that Anterior hippocampal activity is associated with detailed memory but decreases over time. Posterior hippocampal representations, however, are more gist-like at a later retention interval, and do not decline over time. These findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known systems consolidation from hippocampus to neocortex, there are changes within the hippocampus that are crucial for the temporal dynamics of memory. Detailed memories are transformed into gist-like memories over time. Here, the authors report that this change is linked to a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, such that Anterior activity supporting memory specificity declines over time while Posterior activity patterns carrying gist representations remain more stable.