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Anthropogenic Heat

The Experts below are selected from a list of 1767 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

C S B Grimmond – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Anthropogenic Heat flux advisable spatial resolutions when input data are scarce
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Andrew Gabey, C S B Grimmond, I Capeltimms

    Abstract:

    Anthropogenic Heat flux (QF) may be significant in cities, especially under low solar irradiance and at night. It is of interest to many practitioners including meteorologists, city planners and climatologists. QF estimates at fine temporal and spatial resolution can be derived from models that use varying amounts of empirical data. This study compares simple and detailed models in a European megacity (London) at 500 m spatial resolution. The simple model (LQF) uses spatially resolved population data and national energy statistics. The detailed model (GQF) additionally uses local energy, road network and workday population data. The Fractions Skill Score (FSS) and bias are used to rate the skill with which the simple model reproduces the spatial patterns and magnitudes of QF, and its sub-components, from the detailed model. LQF skill was consistently good across 90% of the city, away from the centre and major roads. The remaining 10% contained elevated emissions and “hot spots” representing 30–40% of the total city-wide energy. This structure was lost because it requires workday population, spatially resolved building energy consumption and/or road network data. Daily total building and traffic energy consumption estimates from national data were within ± 40% of local values. Progressively coarser spatial resolutions to 5 km improved skill for total QF, but important features (hot spots, transport network) were lost at all resolutions when residential population controlled spatial variations. The results demonstrate that simple QF models should be applied with conservative spatial resolution in cities that, like London, exhibit time-varying energy use patterns.

  • evaluation of the surface urban energy and water balance scheme suews at a dense urban site in shanghai sensitivity to Anthropogenic Heat and irrigation
    Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Xiangyu Ao, C S B Grimmond, H C Ward, Andrew Gabey, Xiuqun Yang, Ning Zhang

    Abstract:

    AbstractThe Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is used to investigate the impact of Anthropogenic Heat flux QF and irrigation on surface energy balance partitioning in a central …

  • Anthropogenic Heat flux estimation from space: results of the first phase of the URBANFLUXES project
    Remote Sensing Technologies and Applications in Urban Environments, 2016
    Co-Authors: Nektarios Chrysoulakis, Mattia Marconcini, Jean-philippe Gastellu-etchegorry, Christian Feigenwinter, Fredrik Lindberg, Fabio Del Frate, Judith Klostermann, C S B Grimmond, Zina Mitraka, Thomas Esch

    Abstract:

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic Heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve Anthropogenic Heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban Heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. This will lead to the development of tools and strategies to mitigate these effects, improving thermal comfort and energy efficiency. In URBANFLUXES, the Anthropogenic Heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in Heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent Heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the Anthropogenic Heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The project exploits Sentinels observations, which provide improved data quality, coverage and revisit times and increase the value of EO data for scientific work and future emerging applications. These observations can reveal novel scientific insights for the detection and monitoring of the spatial distribution of the urban energy budget fluxes in cities, thereby generating new EO opportunities. URBANFLUXES thus exploits the European capacity for space-borne observations to enable the development of operational services in the field of urban environmental monitoring and energy efficiency in cities.

Ning Zhang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • evaluation of the surface urban energy and water balance scheme suews at a dense urban site in shanghai sensitivity to Anthropogenic Heat and irrigation
    Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Xiangyu Ao, C S B Grimmond, H C Ward, Andrew Gabey, Xiuqun Yang, Ning Zhang

    Abstract:

    AbstractThe Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is used to investigate the impact of Anthropogenic Heat flux QF and irrigation on surface energy balance partitioning in a central …

  • numerical simulations on influence of urban land cover expansion and Anthropogenic Heat release on urban meteorological environment in pearl river delta
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Ning Zhang, Yan Chen, Xuemei Wang, Xueyuan Wang

    Abstract:

    Urbanization is an extreme way in which human being changes the land use/land cover of the earth surface, and Anthropogenic Heat release occurs at the same time. In this paper, the Anthropogenic Heat release parameterization scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting model is modified to consider the spatial heterogeneity of the release; and the impacts of land use change and Anthropogenic Heat release on urban boundary layer structure in the Pearl River Delta, China, are studied with a series of numerical experiments. The results show that the Anthropogenic Heat release contributes nearly 75 % to the urban Heat island intensity in our studied period. The impact of Anthropogenic Heat release on near-surface specific humidity is very weak, but that on relative humidity is apparent due to the near-surface air temperature change. The near-surface wind speed decreases after the local land use is changed to urban type due to the increased land surface roughness, but the Anthropogenic Heat release leads to increases of the low-level wind speed and decreases above in the urban boundary layer because the Anthropogenic Heat release reduces the boundary layer stability and enhances the vertical mixing.

  • numerical simulation of the Anthropogenic Heat effect on urban boundary layer structure
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Yongsheng Chen, Weimei Jiang, Ning Zhang, X F He, R W Zhou

    Abstract:

    In this paper, several methods of incorporating Anthropogenic Heat release into the boundary layer are compared. The best scheme was one that included Anthropogenic Heat release in both the surface energy balance equation and the thermodynamic equations. In addition, it included diurnal variations and a distribution of Heat based on building concentrations. We further investigated the influence of Anthropogenic Heat release on urban boundary layer structure and the urban Heat island, and found that the contribution of Anthropogenic Heat release to the urban Heat island is greatest in the evening and at night, and least at noon. The daily average contribution ratio of Anthropogenic Heat to urban Heat island intensity in the winter is 54.5%, compared with just 43.6% in the summer. Anthropogenic Heat strengthens the vertical movement of urban surface air flow, changing the urban Heat island circulation. It also makes the urban boundary layer more turbulent and unstable, especially in the morning and evening. The degree of influence of Anthropogenic Heat release on local boundary layer structure depends on its importance to the surface energy budget.

Yasushi Yamaguchi – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • analysis of urban Heat island effect using aster and etm data separation of Anthropogenic Heat discharge and natural Heat radiation from sensible Heat flux
    Remote Sensing of Environment, 2005
    Co-Authors: Soushi Kato, Yasushi Yamaguchi

    Abstract:

    The urban Heat-island effect occurs as a result of increased sensible Heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere near cities. Sensible Heat flux consists of two components: exhausted Anthropogenic Heat, and Heat radiation due to solar input. The latter may be enhanced by changes in the usage of artificial land surface. The authors have developed a new method to separate the Anthropogenically discharged Heat and natural Heat radiation from the sensible Heat flux, based on a Heat-balance model using satellite remote sensing and ground meteorological data. This method was applied to ASTER and ETM+ data for the daytime during spring, summer and winter and for the nighttime during autumn in Nagoya, Japan. The increased sensible Heat flux was approximately 100 W/m2 in the central part of the city during the summer. Sensible Heat flux at night during autumn was approximately 0 W/m2, except in urban areas and over bodies of water. During the winter, Anthropogenic Heat accounted for almost all of the sensible Heat flux in urban areas. The contribution of Anthropogenic Heat to sensible Heat flux in spring was lower than the contributions in summer and winter. The Anthropogenic Heat flux was high in industrial areas throughout the year. These results are consistent with the fact that Anthropogenic energy consumption is high in summer and winter and low in spring and autumn.

  • Analysis of urban Heat-island effect using ASTER and ETM+ Data: Separation of Anthropogenic Heat discharge and natural Heat radiation from sensible Heat flux
    Remote Sensing of Environment, 2005
    Co-Authors: Soushi Kato, Yasushi Yamaguchi

    Abstract:

    The urban Heat-island effect occurs as a result of increased sensible Heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere near cities. Sensible Heat flux consists of two components: exhausted Anthropogenic Heat, and Heat radiation due to solar input. The latter may be enhanced by changes in the usage of artificial land surface. The authors have developed a new method to separate the Anthropogenically discharged Heat and natural Heat radiation from the sensible Heat flux, based on a Heat-balance model using satellite remote sensing and ground meteorological data. This method was applied to ASTER and ETM+ data for the daytime during spring, summer and winter and for the nighttime during autumn in Nagoya, Japan. The increased sensible Heat flux was approximately 100 W/m2 in the central part of the city during the summer. Sensible Heat flux at night during autumn was approximately 0 W/m2, except in urban areas and over bodies of water. During the winter, Anthropogenic Heat accounted for almost all of the sensible Heat flux in urban areas. The contribution of Anthropogenic Heat to sensible Heat flux in spring was lower than the contributions in summer and winter. The Anthropogenic Heat flux was high in industrial areas throughout the year. These results are consistent with the fact that Anthropogenic energy consumption is high in summer and winter and low in spring and autumn. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.