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Anticaking Agent

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Elias Vlieg – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The structure of PbCl2 on the {100} surface of NaCl and its consequences for crystal growth
    Journal of Chemical Physics, 2018
    Co-Authors: Eleanor R. Townsend, Jan A M Meijer, Willem J. P. Van Enckevort, Sander J. T. Brugman, Melian A. R. Blijlevens, Mireille M. H. Smets, Wester De Poel, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    The role that additives play in the growth of sodium chloride is a topic which has been widely researched but not always fully understood at an atomic level. Lead chloride (PbCl2) is one such additive which has been reported to have growth inhibition effects on NaCl {100} and {111}; however, no definitive evidence has been reported which details the mechanism of this interaction. In this investigation, we used the technique of surface x-ray diffraction to determine the interaction between PbCl2 and NaCl {100} and the structure at the surface. We find that Pb2+ replaces a surface Na+ ion, while a Cl- ion is located on top of the Pb2+. This leads to a charge mismatch in the bulk crystal, which, as energetically unfavourable, leads to a growth blocking effect. While this is a similar mechanism as in the Anticaking Agent ferrocyanide, the effect of PbCl2 is much weaker, most likely due to the fact that the Pb2+ ion can more easily desorb. Moreover, PbCl2 has an even stronger effect on NaCl {111}.

  • Amides as Anticaking Agents for sodium chloride: is a triple branched variant necessary?
    CrystEngComm, 2018
    Co-Authors: Eleanor R. Townsend, Willem J. P. Van Enckevort, Jan A M Meijer, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    Amides are well known for their potential as Anticaking Agents for sodium chloride. We have investigated what is the ideal structure for an amide based Anticaking Agent and what features lead to effective Anticaking. Through a series of experiments, we have found that a triple-branched structure, with the three branches radiating from the same nitrogen centre, is the only effective compound for preventing caking for sodium chloride. We conclude that this is likely due to bonding between the atoms of the amide functional group and the ions of sodium chloride, with an extra bond from the central nitrogen giving a strong attachment to the surface, thus leading to blocking of growth. We have also outlined a list of four categories, of which a compound must obey all of in order to act as an effective Anticaking Agent.

  • Creeping: an efficient way to determine the Anticaking ability of additives for sodium chloride
    CrystEngComm, 2016
    Co-Authors: Eleanor R. Townsend, Jan A M Meijer, F. Swennenhuis, W.j.p. Van Enckevort, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    This article investigates the relationship between additive induced creeping and Anticaking activity in sodium chloride. Through a series of creeping experiments and powder flow analysis, we establish a clear correlation between the amount of creeping and the Anticaking effect of an additive. Habit modification is found not to be a sufficient condition for an Anticaking Agent. The correlation is explained by the fact that both creeping and Anticaking require blocking of crystal growth.

Jan A M Meijer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The structure of PbCl2 on the {100} surface of NaCl and its consequences for crystal growth
    Journal of Chemical Physics, 2018
    Co-Authors: Eleanor R. Townsend, Jan A M Meijer, Willem J. P. Van Enckevort, Sander J. T. Brugman, Melian A. R. Blijlevens, Mireille M. H. Smets, Wester De Poel, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    The role that additives play in the growth of sodium chloride is a topic which has been widely researched but not always fully understood at an atomic level. Lead chloride (PbCl2) is one such additive which has been reported to have growth inhibition effects on NaCl {100} and {111}; however, no definitive evidence has been reported which details the mechanism of this interaction. In this investigation, we used the technique of surface x-ray diffraction to determine the interaction between PbCl2 and NaCl {100} and the structure at the surface. We find that Pb2+ replaces a surface Na+ ion, while a Cl- ion is located on top of the Pb2+. This leads to a charge mismatch in the bulk crystal, which, as energetically unfavourable, leads to a growth blocking effect. While this is a similar mechanism as in the Anticaking Agent ferrocyanide, the effect of PbCl2 is much weaker, most likely due to the fact that the Pb2+ ion can more easily desorb. Moreover, PbCl2 has an even stronger effect on NaCl {111}.

  • Amides as Anticaking Agents for sodium chloride: is a triple branched variant necessary?
    CrystEngComm, 2018
    Co-Authors: Eleanor R. Townsend, Willem J. P. Van Enckevort, Jan A M Meijer, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    Amides are well known for their potential as Anticaking Agents for sodium chloride. We have investigated what is the ideal structure for an amide based Anticaking Agent and what features lead to effective Anticaking. Through a series of experiments, we have found that a triple-branched structure, with the three branches radiating from the same nitrogen centre, is the only effective compound for preventing caking for sodium chloride. We conclude that this is likely due to bonding between the atoms of the amide functional group and the ions of sodium chloride, with an extra bond from the central nitrogen giving a strong attachment to the surface, thus leading to blocking of growth. We have also outlined a list of four categories, of which a compound must obey all of in order to act as an effective Anticaking Agent.

  • Creeping: an efficient way to determine the Anticaking ability of additives for sodium chloride
    CrystEngComm, 2016
    Co-Authors: Eleanor R. Townsend, Jan A M Meijer, F. Swennenhuis, W.j.p. Van Enckevort, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    This article investigates the relationship between additive induced creeping and Anticaking activity in sodium chloride. Through a series of creeping experiments and powder flow analysis, we establish a clear correlation between the amount of creeping and the Anticaking effect of an additive. Habit modification is found not to be a sufficient condition for an Anticaking Agent. The correlation is explained by the fact that both creeping and Anticaking require blocking of crystal growth.

Arno A C Bode – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Structure and activity of the Anticaking Agent iron(III) meso-tartrate
    Dalton Transactions, 2016
    Co-Authors: Arno A C Bode, Shanfeng Jiang, Jan A M Meijer, S.j.c. Granneman, Martin C. Feiters, Paul Verwer, Willem J. P. Van Enckevort, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    Iron(III) meso-tartrate, a metal–organic complex, is a new Anticaking Agent for sodium chloride. A molecular structure in solution is proposed, based on a combination of experimental and molecular modelling results. We show that the active complex is a binuclear iron(III) complex with two bridging meso-tartrate ligands. The iron atoms are antiferromagnetically coupled, resulting in a reduced paramagnetic nature of the solution. In solution, a water molecule coordinates to each iron atom as a sixth ligand, resulting in an octahedral symmetry around each iron atom. When the water molecule is removed, a flat and charged site is exposed, matching the charge distribution of the {100} sodium chloride crystal surface. This charge distribution is also found in the iron(III) citrate complex, another Anticaking Agent. This gives a possible adsorption geometry on the crystal surface, which in turn explains the Anticaking activity of the iron(III) meso-tartrate complex.

  • Anticaking activity of ferrocyanide on sodium chloride explained by charge mismatch
    Crystal Growth & Design, 2012
    Co-Authors: Arno A C Bode, Vedran Vonk, Fieke J Van Den Bruele, Anne M Kerkenaar, Miguel F Mantilla, Shanfeng Jiang, Jan A M Meijer, Willem J P Van Enckevort, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    Sodium chloride crystals have a strong tendency to cake, which can be prevented by treating them with the Anticaking Agent ferrocyanide. Using surface X-ray diffraction, we show how the ferrocyanide ion sorbs onto the {100} face of the sodium chloride crystal where it replaces a sodium ion and five surrounding chloride ions. The coverage is about 50%. On the basis of the determined atomic structure, we propose the following Anticaking mechanism. Because of the charge of the ferrocyanide ions sorbed on the surface, the crystal can only continue growing by leaving an energetically unfavorable sodium vacancy, or by desorbing the ferrocyanide ion. Therefore, the ferrocyanide effectively blocks further growth of sodium chloride crystals, thereby preventing them from agglomerating and caking.

  • Anticaking Activity of
    Ferrocyanide on Sodium Chloride
    Explained by Charge Mismatch
    , 2012
    Co-Authors: Arno A C Bode, Vedran Vonk, Anne M Kerkenaar, Miguel F Mantilla, Shanfeng Jiang, Jan A M Meijer, Fieke
    J. Van Den Bruele, Dirk J. Kok, Willem J. P. Van
    Enckevort, Elias Vlieg

    Abstract:

    Sodium chloride crystals have a strong tendency to cake,
    which
    can be prevented by treating them with the Anticaking Agent ferrocyanide.
    Using surface X-ray diffraction, we show how the ferrocyanide ion
    sorbs onto the {100} face of the sodium chloride crystal where it
    replaces a sodium ion and five surrounding chloride ions. The coverage
    is about 50%. On the basis of the determined atomic structure, we
    propose the following Anticaking mechanism. Because of the charge
    of the ferrocyanide ions sorbed on the surface, the crystal can only
    continue growing by leaving an energetically unfavorable sodium vacancy,
    or by desorbing the ferrocyanide ion. Therefore, the ferrocyanide
    effectively blocks further growth of sodium chloride crystals, thereby
    preventing them from agglomerating and caking