Aphis - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Aphis

The Experts below are selected from a list of 20556 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Flavie Vanlerberghemasutti – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • insight into the durability of plant resistance to aphids from a demo genetic study of Aphis gossypii in melon crops
    Evolutionary Applications, 2016
    Co-Authors: Sophie Thomas, Flavie Vanlerberghemasutti, P Mistral, Anne Loiseau, Nathalie Boissot

    Abstract:

    Resistance breakdown has been observed following the deployment of plant cultivars resistant to pests. Assessing the durability of a resistance requires long‐term experiments at least at a regional scale. We collected such data for melon resistance conferred by the Vat gene cluster to melon aphids. We examined landscape‐level populations of Aphis gossypii collected in 2004–2015, from melon‐producing regions with and without the deployment of Vat resistance and with different climates. We conducted demo‐genetic analyses of the aphid populations on Vat and non‐Vat plants during the cropping seasons. The Vat resistance decreased the density of aphid populations in all areas and changed the genetic structure and composition of these populations. Two bottlenecks were identified in the dynamics of adapted clones, due to the low levels of production of dispersal morphs and winter extinction. Our results suggest that (i) Vat resistance will not be durable in the Lesser Antilles, where no bottleneck affected the dynamics of adapted clones, (ii) Vat resistance will be durable in south‐west France, where both bottlenecks affected the dynamics of adapted clones and (iii) Vat resistance will be less durable in south‐east France, where only one of the two bottlenecks was observed.

  • dna based discrimination between the sibling species Aphis gossypii glover and Aphis frangulae kaltenbach
    Systematic Entomology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Jerome Carletto, Aurelie Blin, Flavie Vanlerberghemasutti

    Abstract:

    Morphologically similar species occur in various groups of insects, including aphid pests. In Europe, Aphis frangulae Kaltenbach and Aphis gossypii Glover (sometimes considered as subspecies) are differentiated usually on the basis of life cycle and host plant. We used a sexual population of A. frangulae collected on the primary host and samples of A. gossypii collected on cucurbits or cotton for the development of molecular markers. DNA sequence data for the gene encoding cytochrome b and for the barcode region of cytochrome oxidase I, as well as a length polymorphism for an intron in the sodium channel para-type gene discriminated unambiguously between the two taxa. These markers were also used as identification keys for aphids collected on crops belonging to the Solanaceae. The cytochrome b marker differentiates host-related Aphis gossypii haplotypes, and the para-type gene intron might be suitable for the resolution of taxonomic problems in other aphid species complexes.

  • genetic diversity of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii in the unstable environment of a cotton growing area
    Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Thierry Brevault, Jerome Carletto, Daphne Linderme, Flavie Vanlerberghemasutti

    Abstract:

    1 Spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity represented by annual crops is a major factor influencing population dynamics of phytophagous insect pests such as the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. We studied the effects of instability of the cotton agroecosystem resulting from the temporary availability of the plant resource and the repeated use of insecticides on the genetic variability of the cotton aphids.

    2 Samples of A. gossypii were collected in cotton plots, treated or not with insecticides and from vegetable crops (Malvaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae) within the cotton growing area of northern Cameroon. The genetic structure of the samples was assessed using eight microsatellite markers. Insecticide resistance was estimated through the detection of two mutations in the ace-1 gene that are associated with insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides.

    3 The results obtained show that both host plants and insecticides act in genetic structuring of A. gossypii. Ninety-three percent of aphids collected on cotton were characterized by the same microsatellite multilocus genotype, Burk1, which also displays the insecticide resistant alleles.

    4 During the dry season, the cotton crop season after, the genotype Burk1 was principally found on two other malvaceous cultivated plants, rosella and okra, acting as suitable reservoir plants. The ability of the cotton aphid to move among asynchronous suitable habitats in response to changes in resource availability enables the pest to exploit unstable cropping systems. An understanding of the cotton aphid life system may aid to improve strategies for integrated resistance management.

George E Heimpel – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • worldwide populations of the aphid Aphis craccivora are infected with diverse facultative bacterial symbionts
    Microbial Ecology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Cristina M Brady, Nicolas Desneux, Mark K Asplen, George E Heimpel, Keith R Hopper, Catherine R Linnen, Kerry M Oliver, Jason A Wulff, Jennifer A White

    Abstract:

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolutionary processes in a dynamic selective environment. However, relatively little is known about how symbiont diversity is structured in most aphid species. Here, we investigate facultative symbiont species richness and prevalence among worldwide populations of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. We surveyed 44 populations of A. craccivora, and detected 11 strains of facultative symbiotic bacteria, representing six genera. There were two significant associations between facultative symbiont and aphid food plant: the symbiont Arsenophonus was found at high prevalence in A. craccivora populations collected from Robinia sp. (locust), whereas the symbiont Hamiltonella was almost exclusively found in A. craccivora populations from Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Aphids collected from these two food plants also had divergent mitochondrial haplotypes, potentially indicating the formation of specialized aphid lineages associated with food plant (host-associated differentiation). The role of facultative symbionts in this process remains to be determined. Overall, observed facultative symbiont prevalence in A. craccivora was lower than that of some other well-studied aphids (e.g., Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum), possibly as a consequence of A. craccivora’s almost purely parthenogenetic life history. Finally, most (70 %) of the surveyed populations were polymorphic for facultative symbiont infection, indicating that even when symbiont prevalence is relatively low, symbiont-associated phenotypic variation may allow population-level evolutionary responses to local selection.

  • the endosymbiont arsenophonus is widespread in soybean aphid Aphis glycines but does not provide protection from parasitoids or a fungal pathogen
    PLOS ONE, 2013
    Co-Authors: Jason A Wulff, George E Heimpel, Kongming Wu, Karrie A Buckman, Jennifer A White

    Abstract:

    Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is infected with the symbiont Arsenophonus sp., which has an unknown role in its aphid host. Our research goals were to document the infection frequency and diversity of the symbiont in field-collected soybean aphids, and to determine whether Arsenophonus is defending soybean aphid against natural enemies. We performed diagnostic PCR and sequenced four Arsenophonus genes in soybean aphids from their native and introduced range to estimate infection frequency and genetic diversity, and found that Arsenophonus infection is highly prevalent and genetically uniform. To evaluate the defensive role of Arsenophonus, we cured two aphid genotypes of their natural Arsenophonus infection through ampicillin microinjection, resulting in infected and uninfected isolines within the same genetic background. These isolines were subjected to parasitoid assays using a recently introduced biological control agent, Binodoxys communis [Braconidae], a naturally recruited parasitoid, Aphelinus certus [Aphelinidae], and a commercially available biological control agent, Aphidius colemani [Braconidae]. We also assayed the effect of the common aphid fungal pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudiere & Hennebert) Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), on the same aphid isolines. We did not find differences in successful parasitism for any of the parasitoid species, nor did we find differences in P. neoaphidis infection between our treatments. Our conclusion is that Arsenophonus does not defend its soybean aphid host against these major parasitoid and fungal natural enemies.

  • parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines by binodoxys communis the role of aphid defensive behaviour and parasitoid reproductive performance
    Bulletin of Entomological Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Kris A G Wyckhuys, Nicolas Desneux, Keith R Hopper, Laura Hocum L Stone, Kim A Hoelmer, George E Heimpel

    Abstract:

    The Asian parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a candidate for release against the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. In this study, we examined preferences by B. communis for the different developmental stages of A. glycines and investigated consequences of these preferences for parasitoid fitness. We also determined to what extent aphid defensive behaviours mediate such preferences. We found that B. communis readily attacks and successfully develops in the different A. glycines developmental stages. Binodoxys communis development time gradually increased with aphid developmental stage, and wasps took longest to develop in alates. An average (±SE) of 54.01±0.08% of parasitized A. glycines alatoid nymphs transformed into winged adult aphids prior to mummification. No-choice assays showed a higher proportion of successful attacks for immature apterous A. glycines nymphs compared to adults and alatoid nymphs. Also, choice trials indicated avoidance and lower attack and oviposition of adults and alatoid nymphs. The different aphid stages exhibited a range of defensive behaviours, including body raising, kicking and body rotation. These defenses were employed most effectively by larger aphids. We discuss implications for the potential establishment, spread and biological control efficacy of A. glycines by B. communis in the event that it is released in North America.

Nicolas Desneux – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines
    Ecotoxicology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Yanyan Qu, Nicolas Desneux, Da Xiao, Jinyu Li, Zhou Chen, Antonio Biondi, Dunlun Song

    Abstract:

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L−1) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L−1) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L−1 imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  • worldwide populations of the aphid Aphis craccivora are infected with diverse facultative bacterial symbionts
    Microbial Ecology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Cristina M Brady, Nicolas Desneux, Mark K Asplen, George E Heimpel, Keith R Hopper, Catherine R Linnen, Kerry M Oliver, Jason A Wulff, Jennifer A White

    Abstract:

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts can play an important role in the evolutionary trajectory of their hosts. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are infected with a wide variety of facultative endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits, which in turn may drive microevolutionary processes in a dynamic selective environment. However, relatively little is known about how symbiont diversity is structured in most aphid species. Here, we investigate facultative symbiont species richness and prevalence among worldwide populations of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. We surveyed 44 populations of A. craccivora, and detected 11 strains of facultative symbiotic bacteria, representing six genera. There were two significant associations between facultative symbiont and aphid food plant: the symbiont Arsenophonus was found at high prevalence in A. craccivora populations collected from Robinia sp. (locust), whereas the symbiont Hamiltonella was almost exclusively found in A. craccivora populations from Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Aphids collected from these two food plants also had divergent mitochondrial haplotypes, potentially indicating the formation of specialized aphid lineages associated with food plant (host-associated differentiation). The role of facultative symbionts in this process remains to be determined. Overall, observed facultative symbiont prevalence in A. craccivora was lower than that of some other well-studied aphids (e.g., Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum), possibly as a consequence of A. craccivora’s almost purely parthenogenetic life history. Finally, most (70 %) of the surveyed populations were polymorphic for facultative symbiont infection, indicating that even when symbiont prevalence is relatively low, symbiont-associated phenotypic variation may allow population-level evolutionary responses to local selection.

  • parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines by binodoxys communis the role of aphid defensive behaviour and parasitoid reproductive performance
    Bulletin of Entomological Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Kris A G Wyckhuys, Nicolas Desneux, Keith R Hopper, Laura Hocum L Stone, Kim A Hoelmer, George E Heimpel

    Abstract:

    The Asian parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a candidate for release against the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. In this study, we examined preferences by B. communis for the different developmental stages of A. glycines and investigated consequences of these preferences for parasitoid fitness. We also determined to what extent aphid defensive behaviours mediate such preferences. We found that B. communis readily attacks and successfully develops in the different A. glycines developmental stages. Binodoxys communis development time gradually increased with aphid developmental stage, and wasps took longest to develop in alates. An average (±SE) of 54.01±0.08% of parasitized A. glycines alatoid nymphs transformed into winged adult aphids prior to mummification. No-choice assays showed a higher proportion of successful attacks for immature apterous A. glycines nymphs compared to adults and alatoid nymphs. Also, choice trials indicated avoidance and lower attack and oviposition of adults and alatoid nymphs. The different aphid stages exhibited a range of defensive behaviours, including body raising, kicking and body rotation. These defenses were employed most effectively by larger aphids. We discuss implications for the potential establishment, spread and biological control efficacy of A. glycines by B. communis in the event that it is released in North America.