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Arbuscular Mycorrhizas

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Timothy R. Cavagnaro – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effects of plant roots and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas on soil phosphorus leaching
    Science of The Total Environment, 2020
    Co-Authors: Cuc T K Tran, Stephanie J Wattswilliams, Ronald J Smernik, Timothy R. Cavagnaro

    Abstract:

    While the impact of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on phosphorus (P) uptake is well understood, the mechanism(s) of how these fungi affect P leaching from soil is still unclear. Here we present results of a study in which we grew a mycorrhiza-defective tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype (named rmc) and its mycorrhizal wild-type progenitor (named 76R) in microcosms containing non-sterile soil, to examine the influence of roots and AMF on P leaching. More P was leached from the planted microcosms as compared to the plant-free controls. Further, although there was more plant biomass and greater P uptake in the mycorrhizal plant treatments, these treatments were associated with the most leaching of total P, reactive P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was a strong correlation between the total P and DOC leached, suggesting that root and fungal exudates may have affected P leaching. These findings provide new insights into the impact of roots and AMF on nutrient leaching in soils.

  • ecological intensification and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas a meta analysis of tillage and cover crop effects
    Journal of Applied Ecology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Timothy M Bowles, Louise E Jackson, Malina Loeher, Timothy R. Cavagnaro

    Abstract:

    Summary
    1.Reliance on ecosystem services instead of synthetic, non-renewable inputs is increasingly seen as key to achieving food security in an environmentally sustainable way. This process, known as ecological intensification, will depend in large part on enhancing below-ground biological interactions that facilitate resource use efficiency. Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (AM), associations formed between the roots of most terrestrial plant species and a specialized group of soil fungi, provide valuable ecosystem services, but the full magnitude of these services may not be fully realized under conventional intensively-managed annual agricultural systems.

    2.Here we use meta-analysis to assess how reducing soil disturbance and periods without roots in agricultural systems affects the formation of AM and the diversity and community composition of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compiled data from 54 field studies across five continents that measured effects of tillage and/or cover cropping on AMF colonization and/or communities and assessed effects of management and environmental factors on these responses.

    3.Less intensive tillage and winter cover cropping similarly increased AMF colonization of summer annual cash crop roots by ~30%. The key variables influencing the change in AMF colonization were the type of cover crop or the type of alternative tillage, suggesting that farmers can optimize combinations of tillage and cover crops that most enhance AM formation, particularly with no-till systems and legume cover crops.

    4.Richness of AMF taxa increased by 11% in low-intensity vs. conventional tillage regimes. Several studies showed changes in diversity and community composition of AMF with cover cropping, but these responses were not consistent.

    5.Synthesis and applications. This meta-analysis indicates that less intensive tillage and cover cropping are both viable strategies for enhancing root colonization from indigenous Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) across a wide range of soil types and cash crop species, and possibly also shifting AMF community structure, which could in turn increase biologically-based resource use in agricultural systems.

    This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • the role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in reducing soil nutrient loss
    Trends in Plant Science, 2015
    Co-Authors: Timothy R. Cavagnaro, Marcel G A Van Der Heijden, Franz S Bender, Hamid R Asghari

    Abstract:

    Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils via leaching and as gaseous emissions. These losses can be environmentally damaging and expensive in terms of lost agricultural production. Plants have evolved many traits to optimize nutrient acquisition, including the formation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (AM), associations of plant roots with fungi that acquire soil nutrients. There is emerging evidence that AM have the ability to reduce nutrient loss from soils by enlarging the nutrient interception zone and preventing nutrient loss after rain-induced leaching events. Until recently, this important ecosystem service of AM had been largely overlooked. Here we review the role of AM in reducing nutrient loss and conclude that this role cannot be ignored if we are to increase global food production in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Stephanie J Wattswilliams – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effects of plant roots and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas on soil phosphorus leaching
    Science of The Total Environment, 2020
    Co-Authors: Cuc T K Tran, Stephanie J Wattswilliams, Ronald J Smernik, Timothy R. Cavagnaro

    Abstract:

    While the impact of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on phosphorus (P) uptake is well understood, the mechanism(s) of how these fungi affect P leaching from soil is still unclear. Here we present results of a study in which we grew a mycorrhiza-defective tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype (named rmc) and its mycorrhizal wild-type progenitor (named 76R) in microcosms containing non-sterile soil, to examine the influence of roots and AMF on P leaching. More P was leached from the planted microcosms as compared to the plant-free controls. Further, although there was more plant biomass and greater P uptake in the mycorrhizal plant treatments, these treatments were associated with the most leaching of total P, reactive P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was a strong correlation between the total P and DOC leached, suggesting that root and fungal exudates may have affected P leaching. These findings provide new insights into the impact of roots and AMF on nutrient leaching in soils.

  • uptake of zinc and phosphorus by plants is affected by zinc fertiliser material and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas
    Plant and Soil, 2014
    Co-Authors: Stephanie J Wattswilliams, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, Antonio F Patti, Terence W Turney

    Abstract:

    Background and Aims
    Water solubility of zinc (Zn) fertilisers affects their plant availability. Further, simultaneous application of Zn and phosphorus (P) fertiliser can have antagonistic effects on plant Zn uptake. Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (AM) can improve plant Zn and P uptake. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to test the effect of different Zn fertiliser materials, in conjunction with P fertiliser application, and colonisation by AM, on plant nutrition and biomass.

  • nutrient interactions and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas a meta analysis of a mycorrhiza defective mutant and wild type tomato genotype pair
    Plant and Soil, 2014
    Co-Authors: Stephanie J Wattswilliams, Timothy R. Cavagnaro

    Abstract:

    Background and aims
    Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (AM) enhance plant uptake of a range of mineral nutrients from the soil. Interactions between nutrients in the soil and plant, are complex, and can be affected by AM. Using a mycorrhiza-defective mutant tomato genotype (rmc) and its wild-type (76R), provides a novel method to study AM functioning.

Zhao Zhiwei – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • occurrence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas and dark septate endophytes in hydrophytes from lakes and streams in southwest china
    International Review of Hydrobiology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Zhao Zhiwei

    Abstract:

    In this study, the colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (AM) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in 140 specimens of 32 hydrophytes collected from four lakes and four streams in southwest China were investigated. The Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and DSE colonization in these hydrophytes were rare. Typical AM structures were observed in one of the 25 hydrophytic species collected in lakes and six of the 17 species collected in streams.

    Spores of 10 identified AMF species and an unidentified Acaulospora sp. were isolated from the sediments. The identified AMF came from the four genera, Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora . Glomus and G. mosseae were the dominant genus and species respectively in these aquatic environments.

    The presence of DSE in hydrophytes was recorded for the first time. DSE occurred in one of the 25 hydrophyte species collected in lakes and three of the 17 species collected in streams. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in a hot and arid ecosystem in southwest china
    Applied Soil Ecology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Zhao Zhiwei

    Abstract:

    Abstract The colonization by Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore abundance and community were investigated in a valley-type semi-savanna vegetation of Yuan River in southwest China. Of the 62 plants representing 33 families surveyed, 59 plant species (about 95%) were Arbuscular mycorrhizal and 3 species (5%) were possibly Arbuscular mycorrhizal. Rhizosphere soils harbored abundant Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores in a range of 240–6430 per 100 g soil with an average of 2096, and most spores were small with diameter less than 70 μm (about 78%). The fungi most frequently found were members of the genera Acaulospora and Glomus . Acaulospora spinosa , A. denticulata , A. tuberculata , Glomus sinuosa , G. clarum , G. intraradices and G. microaggregatum were the most common species. These results revealed that Arbuscular Mycorrhizas are a common and important component in this semi-savanna vegetation; the high spore density and colonization were presumably a selective adaptation toward the hot and arid ecosystem.

  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in a valley type savanna in southwest china
    Mycorrhiza, 2004
    Co-Authors: Li Jianping, Zhao Zhiwei

    Abstract:

    The Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of 67 plant species in a savanna community in the hot, dry valley of Jinsha River, southwest China was surveyed. It was found that about 95% of the plant species formed AM and 5% possibly formed AM. The composition of AM fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere soils was also investigated. The AMF spore density ranged from 5 to 6,400 per 100 g soil, with an average of 1,530, and these spores/sporocarps were identified as belonging to six genera. Fungi belonging to the genera Glomus and Acaulospora were the dominant AMF. High densities of AMF spores in the rhizosphere soils, and the intensive colonization of the plant roots, indicated that plants grown in this valley-type savanna may be highly dependent on AM.