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Arc Process

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B.s. Satyanarayana – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Effect of electron irradiation on morphological, compositional and electrical properties of nanocluster carbon thin films grown using room temperature based cathodic Arc Process for large area microelectronics
    Microelectronics Reliability, 2014
    Co-Authors: Shounak De, B.s. Satyanarayana, Ganesh Sanjeev, K. Ramakrishna, Manjunatha Pattabi

    Abstract:

    Abstract The influence of 8 MeV electron beam bombardment on room temperature grown nanocluster carbon using cathodic Arc Process has been studied here. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows that surface roughness varies with varying electron doses. High doses of electrons could causes thermal induce graphitization and morphological changes in the films. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that G-peak vary from 1555 cm−1 to 1570 cm−1 and D-peak varying from 1361 cm−1 to 1365 cm−1 indicating the disorderness and presence of both graphitic and diamond-like phases. Room temperature conductivity changes by two to three orders in magnitude. The conductivity in the films could be due to conduction of charge carriers through neighboring islands of conductive chains. Defect states calculated using the differential technique varies from 8 × 1017cm−3 eV−1 to 1.5 × 1019 cm−3 eV−1. Irradiation of nanocluster carbon thin films could be helpful to tune the electrical properties and defect densities of the nanocluster carbon films for various large area, flexible electronic and nano electronic applications.

  • Fourier-transform infrared absorption study of the nanocluster carbon thin films grown using cathodic Arc Process
    , 2011
    Co-Authors: Shounak De, B.s. Satyanarayana, Shailesh Sharma

    Abstract:

    Nanocluster carbon thin films are deposited on Silicon Substrate using Cathodic Arc Process. These films are mixed phased materials containing both sp2 and sp3 bondings. The surface morphology is characterized by Fourier‐Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to find out different vibrational modes in these films. The various bendings modes with Olefinic and aromatic structures are associated with a broad absorption band between 1130 and 1550 cm−1. The peaks in and around 2900 cm−1 shows various stretching modes of C‐Hn (n = 1,2,3).

  • Raman spectroscopy and conductivity variation of nanocluster carbon thin films grown using a room temperature based cathodic Arc Process
    Scientia Iranica, 2011
    Co-Authors: Shounak De, S. Niranjana, B.s. Satyanarayana

    Abstract:

    Nanocluster Carbon (NC) thin films grown at room temperature, using a cathodic Arc Process, under varying deposition conditions, exhibit interesting electrical and opto-electronic properties. These films are mixed phase material containing both sp2 (graphite-like) and sp3 (diamond-like) bonding. A Raman G-peak has been observed between 1585 and 1595 cm−1, which indicates graphite-like bonding. A Raman D-peak has been observed between 1355 and 1365 cm−1, which indicates disorderliness in the carbon structure of the films. The Raman spectra of the films were deconvoluted using Breit–Wigner–Fano line shapes. The Raman parameters, including intensity ratios, peak positions, Full-Width Half Maxima (FWHM) and coupling coefficients obtained from both line shapes, were described and compared with varying Helium partial pressures. The dependence on temperature of the conductivity, showing two regions of electronic transport, is explained based on a thermal-assisted tunneling Process. The electrical conductivity varies from 1×10−4 S/cm to 1.66×10−5 S/cm with respect to varying deposition parameters, such as Arc current, DC bias and throw distance.

O.s. Panwar – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Properties of boron and phosphorous incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films grown using filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process
    Applied Surface Science, 2010
    Co-Authors: O.s. Panwar, Mohd Alim Khan, Bonthu Satyanarayana, Sushil Kumar, Ishpal

    Abstract:

    This paper reports the electrical, mechanical, structural and field emission properties of as grown and also boron and phosphorous incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, deposited using a filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process. The effect of varying boron and phosphorous content (up to 2.0 at.% in to ta-C) on the conductivity (σD), activation energy (ΔE1), hardness, microstructure, emission threshold (Eturn-ON) and emission current density (J) at 12.5 V/μm of ta-C: B and ta-C: P films deposited at a high negative substrate bias of −300 V are reported. It is observed that both boron and phosphorous incorporation leads to a nearly an order increase in σD and corresponding decrease in ΔE1 and a slight increase in hardness as compared to as grown ta-C films. In the case of field assisted electron emission, it is observed that Eturn-ON increases and J decreases. The changes are attributed to the changes in the sp3/sp2 ratio of the films due to boron and phosphorous incorporation. The effect of boron on ta-C is to give a p-type effect whereas the effect of phosphorous gives n-type doping effect.

  • Characterization of Boron- and Phosphorous-Incorporated Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Process
    Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2009
    Co-Authors: O.s. Panwar, Mohd Alim Khan, Bonthu Satyanarayana, Mahesh Kumar, S. M. Shivaprasad, Prakash Narain Dixit, R. Bhattacharyya

    Abstract:

    This paper reports the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), and Raman studies of boron- and phosphorous-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process. A systematic study of the influence of varying boron (B) and phosphorous (P) content on the properties of the as-grown ta-C films deposited at high negative substrate bias (-300 V) is reported by analyzing the C 1s, B 1s, and P 1s core levels using photoelectron spectroscopy. The sp3 and sp2 contents in the films were determined by measuring the width of the X-ray-induced Auger peaks. B incorporation in ta-C films up to 2.0 at. % increases the sp2 content and decreases the sp3 content by 3.6%, whereas P incorporation up to 2.0 at. % results in an increase of sp2 content and decrease of sp3 content by ~ 30%. The valence band spectra show changes in the Fermi level as B and P are incorporated into the ta-C films. The characteristic Raman spectra confirm the high sp3 content in the deposited films. Thus, the study demonstrates, in the case of high negative substrate bias films, that a pronounced decrease in sp3 fraction or the diamond-like nature of the ta-C films occurs upon P incorporation in comparison to that upon B incorporation.

  • Reflectance and photoluminescence spectra of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process
    Thin Solid Films, 2006
    Co-Authors: O.s. Panwar, Mohd Alim Khan, Bonthu Satyanarayana, R. Bhattacharyya, Prakash Narain Dixit, B. Bhattacharjee, Mazhar Khan

    Abstract:

    Abstract The study of reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of as grown and also hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process is reported here. First the effect of negative substrate bias on the properties of as grown ta-C films and next the effect of varying hydrogen and nitrogen partial pressure at a high substrate bias of − 300 V on the properties of hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C (ta-C:H and ta-C:N) films are reported for the first time. The values of the optical band gap ( E g ) evaluated using the reflectance spectra were found to decrease with the increase of the substrate bias in the as grown ta-C films. Hydrogen incorporation up to 1.9 × 10 − 2  Pa partial pressure in as grown ta-C films increased the values of E g and beyond which the values of E g decreased while the nitrogen incorporation up to 3.0 × 10 − 1  Pa partial pressure has no effect on the E g values. The PL spectra indicated a strong peak at ∼2.66 eV in as grown ta-C films deposited at − 20 V substrate bias. This main peak was found to shift to higher energy with the increase of the substrate bias up to − 200 V and thereafter the PL peak shifted towards the lower energy. Other peak at 3.135 eV starts appearing and this is found to start shifting to higher energy for films deposited at higher substrate bias. The intensity of the main PL peak was enhanced at low temperature and several other peaks started appearing in place of the broad peak at ∼3.16 eV. The peak width and area of both the main peak were found to decrease with the increase of substrate bias in as grown ta-C films and with the increase of the hydrogen and nitrogen partial pressure used in depositing ta-C:H and ta-C:N films. The current models on the source of luminescence in amorphous carbon have been discussed.

R. Bhattacharyya – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Characterization of Boron- and Phosphorous-Incorporated Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Process
    Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2009
    Co-Authors: O.s. Panwar, Mohd Alim Khan, Bonthu Satyanarayana, Mahesh Kumar, S. M. Shivaprasad, Prakash Narain Dixit, R. Bhattacharyya

    Abstract:

    This paper reports the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), and Raman studies of boron- and phosphorous-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process. A systematic study of the influence of varying boron (B) and phosphorous (P) content on the properties of the as-grown ta-C films deposited at high negative substrate bias (-300 V) is reported by analyzing the C 1s, B 1s, and P 1s core levels using photoelectron spectroscopy. The sp3 and sp2 contents in the films were determined by measuring the width of the X-ray-induced Auger peaks. B incorporation in ta-C films up to 2.0 at. % increases the sp2 content and decreases the sp3 content by 3.6%, whereas P incorporation up to 2.0 at. % results in an increase of sp2 content and decrease of sp3 content by ~ 30%. The valence band spectra show changes in the Fermi level as B and P are incorporated into the ta-C films. The characteristic Raman spectra confirm the high sp3 content in the deposited films. Thus, the study demonstrates, in the case of high negative substrate bias films, that a pronounced decrease in sp3 fraction or the diamond-like nature of the ta-C films occurs upon P incorporation in comparison to that upon B incorporation.

  • Reflectance and photoluminescence spectra of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process
    Thin Solid Films, 2006
    Co-Authors: O.s. Panwar, Mohd Alim Khan, Bonthu Satyanarayana, R. Bhattacharyya, Prakash Narain Dixit, B. Bhattacharjee, Mazhar Khan

    Abstract:

    Abstract The study of reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of as grown and also hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum Arc Process is reported here. First the effect of negative substrate bias on the properties of as grown ta-C films and next the effect of varying hydrogen and nitrogen partial pressure at a high substrate bias of − 300 V on the properties of hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C (ta-C:H and ta-C:N) films are reported for the first time. The values of the optical band gap ( E g ) evaluated using the reflectance spectra were found to decrease with the increase of the substrate bias in the as grown ta-C films. Hydrogen incorporation up to 1.9 × 10 − 2  Pa partial pressure in as grown ta-C films increased the values of E g and beyond which the values of E g decreased while the nitrogen incorporation up to 3.0 × 10 − 1  Pa partial pressure has no effect on the E g values. The PL spectra indicated a strong peak at ∼2.66 eV in as grown ta-C films deposited at − 20 V substrate bias. This main peak was found to shift to higher energy with the increase of the substrate bias up to − 200 V and thereafter the PL peak shifted towards the lower energy. Other peak at 3.135 eV starts appearing and this is found to start shifting to higher energy for films deposited at higher substrate bias. The intensity of the main PL peak was enhanced at low temperature and several other peaks started appearing in place of the broad peak at ∼3.16 eV. The peak width and area of both the main peak were found to decrease with the increase of substrate bias in as grown ta-C films and with the increase of the hydrogen and nitrogen partial pressure used in depositing ta-C:H and ta-C:N films. The current models on the source of luminescence in amorphous carbon have been discussed.

  • Characterization of as grown and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films deposited by pulsed unfiltered cathodic vacuum Arc Process
    Thin Solid Films, 2005
    Co-Authors: O.s. Panwar, B.s. Satyanarayana, Mohd Alim Khan, R. Bhattacharyya

    Abstract:

    Reported is a study of the as grown and nitrogen incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films deposited by a pulsed unfiltered cathodic vacuum Arc Process using Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The influence of the substrate bias in as grown ta-C films and the effect of the nitrogen content in nitrogen incorporated ta-C films under a fixed bias condition were studied. The Raman spectroscopic study showed that, in the present study, the as grown ta-C films deposited at 40 V substrate bias possibly have the highest sp3 bonded carbon concentration, as observed by the large shift in the G peak to ∼1596 cm−1. In the case of the nitrogen incorporated ta-C films, the G peak exhibited a shift towards lower wave number with increasing nitrogen content, suggesting an increase in disorder. The PL spectra indicated a strong peak ∼2.21 eV arising due to extended defects like dislocations followed by a small one ∼1.92 eV which could be identified as a zero phonon line (ZPL) doublet. Another peak at ∼2.63 eV could be attributed to TR12 center. PL peak at ∼2.21 eV showed an inflexion in ta-C films deposited at 40 V substrate bias. An increase in intensity of the PL peak at ∼2.17 eV and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) value was also observed due to the increase in nitrogen content in the films. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks at 2958, 2366, 2350, 1610, 1512, 1047 and 710 cm−1 in as grown and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films.