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Arrow Poison

The Experts below are selected from a list of 138 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Thomas R. Fraser – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • XXV.—Strophanthus sarmentosus: its Pharmacological Action and its Use as an Arrow Poison
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2020
    Co-Authors: Thomas R. Fraser, Alister T. Mackenzie

    Abstract:

    AbstractAn extract of the seeds of Strophanthus sarmentosus appears to be an important ingredient of the ArrowPoison of Nigeria and other parts of West Africa. While some of the other ingredients of this ArrowPoison may possess toxic power, others of them have little or no toxicity and are introduced into the ArrowPoison with the object, apparently, of rendering it more viscous and adhesive or with a superstitious intention.

  • XV.—Strophanthus sarmentosus: its Pharmacological Action and its use as an ArrowPoison.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2020
    Co-Authors: Thomas R. Fraser, Alister T. Mackenzie

    Abstract:

    In the course of an endeavour, which was successful only after a number of years, to obtain specimens for the purpose of identifying the species of Strophanthus that produces the smooth seeds which had been chemically and pharmacologically investigated by one of us several years ago, the follicles, flowers and other parts of a number of different species of Strophanthus were obtained from Africa. Among them, S. sarmentosus was represented, and in the course of time a sufficient quantity of seeds of this plant was collected to allow an examination to be undertaken of their chemistry and pharmacology.

  • XXVIII.—The Poisoned Arrows of the Abors and Mishmis of North-East India, and the Composition and Action of their Poisons.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2020
    Co-Authors: Thomas R. Fraser

    Abstract:

    Summary1. The active ingredient of the Poison of the Abor and Mishmi Poisoned Arrows is, in some of them, aconite, and, in others, croton oil. The former, apparently, is generally used by the Mishmis, and the latter by the Abors.2. Although sufficient botanical materials have not been obtained to identify the species of aconite, the nature of the pharmacological action suggests that the species is one containing relatively more pseudo-aconitine than aconitine and, therefore, more resembling Aconitum ferox and A. heterophylloides than A. Napellus.3. The ArrowPoisons containing aconite were found to be much more lethal in warm-blooded animals than those containing croton; but the aconite-Poisoned Arrows that were examined carried usually too little aconite for a single Arrow to produce death in man, even if the whole of the Poison should be quickly absorbed.4. The ArrowPoisons containing croton, on the other hand, were found to be incapable of producing death in warm-blooded animals by the absorption of the Poison into the circulation, and could do so only tardily by rendering the animal more susceptible to septicæmia, following inflammatory and even necrotic changes in the tissues into which the Poison had been inserted.5. While thus relatively inert in warm-blooded animals, and presumably, therefore, in man, the croton ArrowPoison is extremely toxic in cold-blooded animals, being for them one of the most lethal of Poisons, readily absorbable into the circulation and producing irritation and hæmorrhages in parts remote from the locality of insertion, and the latter, especially, in the alimentary canal. Remote effects may be produced even without any obvious evidence of local irritation in the place into which the Poison has been inserted. These remarkable peculiarities in the action of the Government of India ArrowPoison are reproduced by its ether extract and by the oil of Croton Tiglium.6. Excepting failure to cause general action in warm-blooded animals, it is interesting to note that in many of their important effects, croton ArrowPoisons as well as croton oil reproduce the effects of viperine venoms.

Alister T. Mackenzie – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • XXV.—Strophanthus sarmentosus: its Pharmacological Action and its Use as an Arrow Poison
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2020
    Co-Authors: Thomas R. Fraser, Alister T. Mackenzie

    Abstract:

    AbstractAn extract of the seeds of Strophanthus sarmentosus appears to be an important ingredient of the ArrowPoison of Nigeria and other parts of West Africa. While some of the other ingredients of this ArrowPoison may possess toxic power, others of them have little or no toxicity and are introduced into the ArrowPoison with the object, apparently, of rendering it more viscous and adhesive or with a superstitious intention.

  • XV.—Strophanthus sarmentosus: its Pharmacological Action and its use as an ArrowPoison.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2020
    Co-Authors: Thomas R. Fraser, Alister T. Mackenzie

    Abstract:

    In the course of an endeavour, which was successful only after a number of years, to obtain specimens for the purpose of identifying the species of Strophanthus that produces the smooth seeds which had been chemically and pharmacologically investigated by one of us several years ago, the follicles, flowers and other parts of a number of different species of Strophanthus were obtained from Africa. Among them, S. sarmentosus was represented, and in the course of time a sufficient quantity of seeds of this plant was collected to allow an examination to be undertaken of their chemistry and pharmacology.

Marlize Lombard – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Potential for identifying plant-based toxins on San hunter-gatherer Arrowheads
    South African Journal of Science, 2017
    Co-Authors: Madelien Wooding, Justin Bradfield, Lyn Wadley, Vinesh Maharaj, Dwayne Koot, Linda Prinsloo, Marlize Lombard

    Abstract:

    Abstract
    The antiquity of the use of hunting Poisons has received much attention in recent years. In this paper we present the results of a pilot study designed to detect the presence of organic compounds, typically of less than 1200 Da, from Poisonous plants that may have been used as hunting Poisons in the past. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography connected to a Synapt G2 high-resolution MS-QTOF mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS) to provisionally identify plant-based toxins present in (1) extracts of fresh plant material, (2) a blind control recipe consisting of three plant ingredients and (3) a Hei||om Arrow Poison of unknown ingredients. Although not all expected toxic compounds were identified, those that were identified compared favourably with those reported in the literature and confirmed through databases, specifically the Dictionary of Natural Products and ChemSpider. MS/MS fragmentation patterns and accurate mass were used for tentative identification of compounds because archaeological residues usually contain insufficient material for unambiguous identification using nuclear magnetic resonance. We highlight the potential of this method for accurately identifying plant-based toxins present on archaeological artefacts and unique (albeit non-toxic) chemical markers that may allow one to infer the presence of toxic plant ingredients in Arrow Poisons. Any chemical study of archaeological material should consider the unique environmental degradative factors and be sensitive to the oxidative by-products of toxic compounds.

  • southern african Arrow Poison recipes their ingredients and implications for stone age archaeology
    Southern African Humanities, 2015
    Co-Authors: Justin Bradfield, Lyn Wadley, Marlize Lombard

    Abstract:

    Biochemical analyses of residues preserved on ethno-historical and archaeological artefacts increase our understanding of past indigenous knowledge systems. The interpretation of biochemical traces is, however, difficult. Problems that can hamper credible interpretations of ethno-historical or archaeological residues include incomplete knowledge about local natural products, limited published data about product applications, and overestimation of the abilities of the analytical techniques to make specific identifications. In an initial attempt to address some of the challenges, we discuss Arrow Poison as a case in point, and we provide complete, updated inventories of known southern African Poison ingedients and recipes, suspected Poisons, and the current state of knowledge about these toxins and their effects. We also suggest that discoveries of ancient Arrow Poison, and the technical steps involved in early toxicology, have the potential to indicate levels of human cognition.