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Asparagopsis

The Experts below are selected from a list of 303 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Nigel W. Tomkins – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Asparagopsis taxiformis decreases enteric methane production from sheep
    Animal Production Science, 2020
    Co-Authors: Xixi Li, Hayley C. Norman, Robert D. Kinley, M. Laurence, Matt G. Wilmot, Hannah Bender, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    Asparagopsis taxiformis concentrates halogenated compounds that are known to inhibit cobamide-dependent methanogenesis in vitro and, therefore, has potential to mitigate enteric methane production. The present study investigated the effect of Asparagopsis on methane (CH4) production from sheep offered a high-fibre pelleted diet (offered at 1.2 × maintenance) at five inclusion levels of Asparagopsis for 72 days (0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% organic matter basis as offered). Individual animal CH4 measurements were conducted at 21-day intervals using open-circuit respiration chambers. Asparagopsis inclusion resulted in a consistent and dose-dependent reduction in enteric CH4 production over time, with up to 80% CH4 mitigation at the 3% offered rate compared with the group fed no Asparagopsis (P < 0.05). Sheep fed Asparagopsis had a significantly lower concentration of total volatile fatty acids and acetate, but a higher propionate concentration. No changes in liveweight gain were identified. Supplementing Asparagopsis in a high-fibre diet (

  • In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimethanogenic Potency and Effects on Fermentation of Individual and Combinations of Marine Macroalgae
    American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2016
    Co-Authors: Robert D. Kinley, Matthew J. Vucko, Lorenna Machado, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    Contribution of ruminants to total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia is approximately 10% and likely to increase with demand for livestock products, thus an efficient method of mitigation must be implemented. The red marine macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis reduces enteric methane production by up to 99% in vitro. Other macroalgae with less potent antimethanogenic properties may complement inclusion of Asparagopsis in livestock feeds. Adoption of environmental based changes in livestock systems must provide benefits to producers if change in management is to be adopted. This study used 72 h in vitro fermentations with rumen inoculum to characterize and rank seven species of macroalgae at low inclusion that previously demonstrated some degree of antimethanogenesis at higher inclusion concentration. The seven were assessed at 5% inclusion (OM basis) and in combination with Asparagopsis to evaluate beneficial effects on fermentation. When tested individually, improvements in volatile fatty acids were generally observed, however, minimal effect on gas production and no clear justification for a ranking order were demonstrated. When tested in combination with Asparagopsis, the effects on fermentation were dominated by presence of Asparagopsis at 2% and no further benefits demonstrated. Therefore, Asparagopsis remains the only macroalga inducing near elimination of methane in vitro and benefit of combinations with other macroalgae evaluated in this study was not demonstrated. However, combination with high protein macroalgae is proposed to provide productivity enhancement during seasonal lows in grass quality and thus reduce methane emissions intensity providing a stronger conduit for environmental responsibility while increasing productivity.

  • dose response effects of Asparagopsis taxiformis and oedogonium sp on in vitro fermentation and methane production
    Journal of Applied Phycology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Lorenna Machado, Robert D. Kinley, Marie Magnusson, Nicholas A Paul, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    This study aimed to identify the optimal doses of the macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis and Oedogonium sp., individually and in combination, which would decrease the in vitro production of methane while minimizing adverse effects on fermentation, using rumen inoculant from Bos indicus steers. The dose-response experiment evaluated ten doses of Asparagopsis [ranging from 0 to 16.7 % of the organic matter (OM) incubated] and seven doses of Oedogonium (ranging from 0 to 100 % OM) using Rhodes grass hay as a basal substrate. Asparagopsis was highly effective in decreasing the production of methane with a reduction of 99 % at doses as low as 2 % OM basis. However, a dose of 2 % OM also decreased the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Oedogonium was less effective with doses ≥50 % OM significantly decreasing the production of methane. A combination of Asparagopsis (2 % OM) and Oedogonium (25 and 50 % OM) continued to suppress the production of methane, independent of the inclusion rate of Oedogonium. The effectiveness of Asparagopsis demonstrates its potential for the mitigation of methane emissions from ruminants at inclusion rates of ≤2 % OM. Oedogonium is a potential feed supplement due to its nutritional value, but supplements ≤25 % OM are recommended to avoid adverse effects on apparent in vitro fermentation.

Nicholas A Paul – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Within-species and temperature-related variation in the growth and natural products of the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis
    Journal of Applied Phycology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Leonardo Mata, Marie Magnusson, Rebecca J. Lawton, Nikos Andreakis, Nicholas A Paul

    Abstract:

    The red algal genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniaceae) is a significant resource for bioactive natural products. However, prior to domestication for commercial production, we need to understand the potential variation in growth and concentration of natural products between isolates of Asparagopsis and, beyond that, how these traits are affected by environmental conditions. Ten isolates of Asparagopsis taxiformis were collected from tropical and warm-temperate regions in Queensland, Australia, and identified by molecular barcoding of the mitochondrial intergenic spacer ( cox 2–3 spacer). The isolates were cultured at three temperatures ranging from the minimum of the warm-temperate region to the maximum of the tropical region. Growth rates and the concentration of natural products varied between the region of origin, between isolates within region and between temperatures. Growth differed by up to 50% between isolates, whereas the concentration of natural products differed more than tenfold. Growth rates were highest at the minimum temperature of 20.2°C, irrespective of region of origin, and were lowest at the maximum temperature of 28.1°C. Natural products were threefold higher in tropical isolates, and this variation was not correlated to growth. Consequently, targeting isolates with high concentrations of natural products should be the primary strategy for the domestication of Asparagopsis for biotechnology applications.

  • dose response effects of Asparagopsis taxiformis and oedogonium sp on in vitro fermentation and methane production
    Journal of Applied Phycology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Lorenna Machado, Robert D. Kinley, Marie Magnusson, Nicholas A Paul, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    This study aimed to identify the optimal doses of the macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis and Oedogonium sp., individually and in combination, which would decrease the in vitro production of methane while minimizing adverse effects on fermentation, using rumen inoculant from Bos indicus steers. The dose-response experiment evaluated ten doses of Asparagopsis [ranging from 0 to 16.7 % of the organic matter (OM) incubated] and seven doses of Oedogonium (ranging from 0 to 100 % OM) using Rhodes grass hay as a basal substrate. Asparagopsis was highly effective in decreasing the production of methane with a reduction of 99 % at doses as low as 2 % OM basis. However, a dose of 2 % OM also decreased the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Oedogonium was less effective with doses ≥50 % OM significantly decreasing the production of methane. A combination of Asparagopsis (2 % OM) and Oedogonium (25 and 50 % OM) continued to suppress the production of methane, independent of the inclusion rate of Oedogonium. The effectiveness of Asparagopsis demonstrates its potential for the mitigation of methane emissions from ruminants at inclusion rates of ≤2 % OM. Oedogonium is a potential feed supplement due to its nutritional value, but supplements ≤25 % OM are recommended to avoid adverse effects on apparent in vitro fermentation.

  • identification of bioactives from the red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis that promote antimethanogenic activity in vitro
    Journal of Applied Phycology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Lorenna Machado, Robert D. Kinley, Marie Magnusson, Nicholas A Paul, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    Asparagopsis taxiformis has potent antimethanogenic activity as a feed supplement at 2 % of organic matter in in vitro bioassays. This study identified the main bioactive natural products and their effects on fermentation using rumen fluid from Bos indicus steers. Polar through to non-polar extracts (water, methanol, dichloromethane and hexane) were tested. The dichloromethane extract was most active, reducing methane production by 79 %. Bromoform was the most abundant natural product in the biomass of Asparagopsis (1723 μg g−1 dry weight [DW] biomass), followed by dibromochloromethane (15.8 μg g−1 DW), bromochloroacetic acid (9.8 μg g−1 DW) and dibromoacetic acid (0.9 μg g−1 DW). Bromoform and dibromochloromethane had the highest activity with concentrations ≥1 μM inhibiting methane production. However, only bromoform was present in sufficient quantities in the biomass at 2 % organic matter to elicit this effect. Importantly, the degradability of organic matter and volatile fatty acids were not affected at effective concentrations.

Lorenna Machado – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • in vitro response of rumen microbiota to the antimethanogenic red macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis
    Microbial Ecology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Lorenna Machado, Marie Magnusson, Nigel William Tomkins, David J Midgley, Carly P Rosewarne

    Abstract:

    The red macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis has been shown to significantly decrease methane production by rumen microbial communities. This has been attributed to the bioaccumulation of halogenated methane analogues produced as algal secondary metabolites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of A. taxiformis supplementation on the relative abundance of methanogens and microbial community structure during in vitro batch fermentation. Addition of A. taxiformis (2% organic matter) or the halogenated methane analogue bromoform (5 μM) reduced methane production by over 99% compared to a basal substrate-only control. Quantitative PCR confirmed that the decrease in methane production was correlated with a decrease in the relative abundance of methanogens. High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that both treatments reduced the abundance of the three main orders of methanogens present in ruminants (Methanobacteriales, Methanomassiliicoccales and Methanomicrobiales). Shifts in bacterial community structure due to the addition of A. taxiformis and 5 μM bromoform were similar and concomitant with increases in hydrogen concentration in the headspace of the fermenters. With high potency and broad-spectrum activity against rumen methanogens, A. taxiformis represents a promising natural strategy for reducing enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock.

  • In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimethanogenic Potency and Effects on Fermentation of Individual and Combinations of Marine Macroalgae
    American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2016
    Co-Authors: Robert D. Kinley, Matthew J. Vucko, Lorenna Machado, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    Contribution of ruminants to total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia is approximately 10% and likely to increase with demand for livestock products, thus an efficient method of mitigation must be implemented. The red marine macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis reduces enteric methane production by up to 99% in vitro. Other macroalgae with less potent antimethanogenic properties may complement inclusion of Asparagopsis in livestock feeds. Adoption of environmental based changes in livestock systems must provide benefits to producers if change in management is to be adopted. This study used 72 h in vitro fermentations with rumen inoculum to characterize and rank seven species of macroalgae at low inclusion that previously demonstrated some degree of antimethanogenesis at higher inclusion concentration. The seven were assessed at 5% inclusion (OM basis) and in combination with Asparagopsis to evaluate beneficial effects on fermentation. When tested individually, improvements in volatile fatty acids were generally observed, however, minimal effect on gas production and no clear justification for a ranking order were demonstrated. When tested in combination with Asparagopsis, the effects on fermentation were dominated by presence of Asparagopsis at 2% and no further benefits demonstrated. Therefore, Asparagopsis remains the only macroalga inducing near elimination of methane in vitro and benefit of combinations with other macroalgae evaluated in this study was not demonstrated. However, combination with high protein macroalgae is proposed to provide productivity enhancement during seasonal lows in grass quality and thus reduce methane emissions intensity providing a stronger conduit for environmental responsibility while increasing productivity.

  • dose response effects of Asparagopsis taxiformis and oedogonium sp on in vitro fermentation and methane production
    Journal of Applied Phycology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Lorenna Machado, Robert D. Kinley, Marie Magnusson, Nicholas A Paul, Nigel W. Tomkins

    Abstract:

    This study aimed to identify the optimal doses of the macroalgae Asparagopsis taxiformis and Oedogonium sp., individually and in combination, which would decrease the in vitro production of methane while minimizing adverse effects on fermentation, using rumen inoculant from Bos indicus steers. The dose-response experiment evaluated ten doses of Asparagopsis [ranging from 0 to 16.7 % of the organic matter (OM) incubated] and seven doses of Oedogonium (ranging from 0 to 100 % OM) using Rhodes grass hay as a basal substrate. Asparagopsis was highly effective in decreasing the production of methane with a reduction of 99 % at doses as low as 2 % OM basis. However, a dose of 2 % OM also decreased the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Oedogonium was less effective with doses ≥50 % OM significantly decreasing the production of methane. A combination of Asparagopsis (2 % OM) and Oedogonium (25 and 50 % OM) continued to suppress the production of methane, independent of the inclusion rate of Oedogonium. The effectiveness of Asparagopsis demonstrates its potential for the mitigation of methane emissions from ruminants at inclusion rates of ≤2 % OM. Oedogonium is a potential feed supplement due to its nutritional value, but supplements ≤25 % OM are recommended to avoid adverse effects on apparent in vitro fermentation.