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Athletic Performance

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Louise M Urke – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • evidence based supplements for the enhancement of Athletic Performance
    International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2018
    Co-Authors: Louise M Urke, Pete Peeling, Marty J Innie, Paul S R Goods, Marc Sim

    Abstract:

    A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based Performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding Performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) Performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports Performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); a…

  • american college of sports medicine joint position statement nutrition and Athletic Performance
    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2016
    Co-Authors: D T Thomas, Kelly Anne Erdma, Louise M Urke

    Abstract:

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the Performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and Performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy’s, DC’s and ACSM’s stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence Athletic Performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  • position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics dietitians of canada and the american college of sports medicine nutrition and Athletic Performance
    Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2016
    Co-Authors: Travis D Thomas, Kelly Anne Erdma, Louise M Urke

    Abstract:

    Abstract It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the Performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and Performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy’s, DC’s, and ACSM’s stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence Athletic Performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

Urs Granache – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on physical fitness and Athletic Performance in youth a systematic review and meta analysis
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Martij Gable, Olaf Prieske, Tibo Hortobagyi, Urs Granache

    Abstract:

    Combining training of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness within a training cycle could increase Athletic Performance more than single-mode training. However, the physiological effects produced by each training modality could also interfere with each other, improving Athletic Performance less than single-mode training. Because anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical differences between young and adult athletes can affect the responses to exercise training, young athletes might respond differently to concurrent training (CT) compared with adults. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on selected physical fitness components and Athletic Performance in youth. A systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science identified 886 records. The studies included in the analyses examined children (girls age 6-11 years, boys age 6-13 years) or adolescents (girls age 12-18 years, boys age 14-18 years), compared CT with single-mode endurance (ET) or strength training (ST), and reported at least one strength/power-(e.g., jump height), endurance-(e.g., peak V°O2, exercise economy), or Performance-related (e.g., time trial) outcome. We calculated weighted standardized mean differences (SMDs). CT compared to ET produced small effects in favor of CT on Athletic Performance (n = 11 studies, SMD = 0.41, p = 0.04) and trivial effects on cardiorespiratory endurance (n = 4 studies, SMD = 0.04, p = 0.86) and exercise economy (n = 5 studies, SMD = 0.16, p = 0.49) in young athletes. A sub-analysis of chronological age revealed a trend toward larger effects of CT vs. ET on Athletic Performance in adolescents (SMD = 0.52) compared with children (SMD = 0.17). CT compared with ST had small effects in favor of CT on muscle power (n = 4 studies, SMD = 0.23, p = 0.04). In conclusion, CT is more effective than single-mode ET or ST in improving selected measures of physical fitness and Athletic Performance in youth. Specifically, CT compared with ET improved Athletic Performance in children and particularly adolescents. Finally, CT was more effective than ST in improving muscle power in youth.

  • effects of resistance training in youth athletes on muscular fitness and Athletic Performance a conceptual model for long term athlete development
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Urs Granache, Olaf Prieske, Melanie Lesinski, Dirk H Usch, Thomas Muehlbaue, Christia Puta, Albe Gollhofe, David G Ehm

    Abstract:

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating Athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and Athletic Performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and Athletic Performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and Athletic Performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  • neuromuscular and Athletic Performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer role of instability
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2016
    Co-Authors: Olaf Prieske, David G Ehm, Thomas Muehlbaue, Ro Orde, M Gube, Urs Granache

    Abstract:

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced Performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and Athletic Performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2–3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking Performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P < 0.05, d = 0.86), 10–20-m sprint time (3%, P < 0.05, d = 2.56), and kicking Performance (1%, P < 0.01, d = 1.28). No significant Group × test interactions were observed for any variable. In conclusion, trunk muscle strength, sprint, and kicking Performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training.

Olaf Prieske – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on physical fitness and Athletic Performance in youth a systematic review and meta analysis
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Martij Gable, Olaf Prieske, Tibo Hortobagyi, Urs Granache

    Abstract:

    Combining training of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness within a training cycle could increase Athletic Performance more than single-mode training. However, the physiological effects produced by each training modality could also interfere with each other, improving Athletic Performance less than single-mode training. Because anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical differences between young and adult athletes can affect the responses to exercise training, young athletes might respond differently to concurrent training (CT) compared with adults. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on selected physical fitness components and Athletic Performance in youth. A systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science identified 886 records. The studies included in the analyses examined children (girls age 6-11 years, boys age 6-13 years) or adolescents (girls age 12-18 years, boys age 14-18 years), compared CT with single-mode endurance (ET) or strength training (ST), and reported at least one strength/power-(e.g., jump height), endurance-(e.g., peak V°O2, exercise economy), or Performance-related (e.g., time trial) outcome. We calculated weighted standardized mean differences (SMDs). CT compared to ET produced small effects in favor of CT on Athletic Performance (n = 11 studies, SMD = 0.41, p = 0.04) and trivial effects on cardiorespiratory endurance (n = 4 studies, SMD = 0.04, p = 0.86) and exercise economy (n = 5 studies, SMD = 0.16, p = 0.49) in young athletes. A sub-analysis of chronological age revealed a trend toward larger effects of CT vs. ET on Athletic Performance in adolescents (SMD = 0.52) compared with children (SMD = 0.17). CT compared with ST had small effects in favor of CT on muscle power (n = 4 studies, SMD = 0.23, p = 0.04). In conclusion, CT is more effective than single-mode ET or ST in improving selected measures of physical fitness and Athletic Performance in youth. Specifically, CT compared with ET improved Athletic Performance in children and particularly adolescents. Finally, CT was more effective than ST in improving muscle power in youth.

  • effects of resistance training in youth athletes on muscular fitness and Athletic Performance a conceptual model for long term athlete development
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Urs Granache, Olaf Prieske, Melanie Lesinski, Dirk H Usch, Thomas Muehlbaue, Christia Puta, Albe Gollhofe, David G Ehm

    Abstract:

    During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating Athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and Athletic Performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and Athletic Performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and Athletic Performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  • neuromuscular and Athletic Performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer role of instability
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2016
    Co-Authors: Olaf Prieske, David G Ehm, Thomas Muehlbaue, Ro Orde, M Gube, Urs Granache

    Abstract:

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced Performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and Athletic Performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2–3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking Performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P < 0.05, d = 0.86), 10–20-m sprint time (3%, P < 0.05, d = 2.56), and kicking Performance (1%, P < 0.01, d = 1.28). No significant Group × test interactions were observed for any variable. In conclusion, trunk muscle strength, sprint, and kicking Performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training.