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B Vitamin

The Experts below are selected from a list of 14124 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

John M Scott – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effect of a voluntary food fortification policy on folate related B Vitamin status and homocysteine in healthy adults
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007
    Co-Authors: Lesli Hoey, Helene Mcnulty, Nadina Askin, Adrian Dunne, Mary Ward, Kristina Pentieva, James J. Strain, A. M. Molloy, Cliona A. Flynn, John M Scott

    Abstract:

    Background: Mandatory folic acid fortification of food is effective in reducing neural tuBe defects and may even reduce stroke-related mortality, But it remains controversial Because of concerns aBout potential adverse effects. Thus, it is virtually nonexistent in Europe, alBeit many countries allow food fortification on a voluntary Basis. OBjective: The oBjective of the study was to examine the effect of a voluntary But liBeral food fortification policy on dietary intake and Biomarker status of folate and other homocysteine-related B Vitamins in a healthy population. Design: The study was a cross-sectional study. From a convenience sample of 662 adults in Northern Ireland, those who provided a fasting Blood sample and dietary intake data were examined (n = 441, aged 18 -92 y). Intakes of Both natural food folate and folic acid from fortified foods were estimated; we used the latter to categorize participants By fortified food intake. Results: Fortified foods were associated with significantly higher dietary intakes and Biomarker status of folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin B-6, and riBoflavin than were unfortified foods. There was no difference in natural food folate intake (range: 179-197 μg/d) Between the fortified food categories. Red Blood cell folate concentrations were 387 nmol/L higher and plasma total homocysteine concentrations were 2 μmol/L lower in the group with the highest fortified food intake (median intake: 208 μg/d folic acid) than in the nonconsumers of fortified foods (0 μg/d folic acid). Conclusions: These results show that voluntary food fortification is associated with a suBstantial increase in dietary intake and Biomarker status of folate and metaBolically related B Vitamins with potential Beneficial effects on health. However, those who do not consume fortified foods regularly may have insufficient B Vitamin status to achieve the known and potential health Benefits.

  • Effect of a voluntary food fortification policy on folate, related B Vitamin status, and homocysteine in healthy adults
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007
    Co-Authors: Lesli Hoey, Helene Mcnulty, Nadina Askin, Adrian Dunne, Mary Ward, Kristina Pentieva, James J. Strain, A. M. Molloy, Cliona A. Flynn, John M Scott

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Mandatory folic acid fortification of food is effective in reducing neural tuBe defects and may even reduce stroke-related mortality, But it remains controversial Because of concerns aBout potential adverse effects. Thus, it is virtually nonexistent in Europe, alBeit many countries allow food fortification on a voluntary Basis. OBJECTIVE: The oBjective of the study was to examine the effect of a voluntary But liBeral food fortification policy on dietary intake and Biomarker status of folate and other homocysteine-related B Vitamins in a healthy population. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional study. From a convenience sample of 662 adults in Northern Ireland, those who provided a fasting Blood sample and dietary intake data were examined (n = 441, aged 18-92 y). Intakes of Both natural food folate and folic acid from fortified foods were estimated; we used the latter to categorize participants By fortified food intake. RESULTS: Fortified foods were associated with significantly higher dietary intakes and Biomarker status of folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin B-6, and riBoflavin than were unfortified foods. There was no difference in natural food folate intake (range: 179-197 microg/d) Between the fortified food categories. Red Blood cell folate concentrations were 387 nmol/L higher and plasma total homocysteine concentrations were 2 micromol/L lower in the group with the highest fortified food intake (median intake: 208 microg/d folic acid) than in the nonconsumers of fortified foods (0 microg/d folic acid). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that voluntary food fortification is associated with a suBstantial increase in dietary intake and Biomarker status of folate and metaBolically related B Vitamins with potential Beneficial effects on health. However, those who do not consume fortified foods regularly may have insufficient B Vitamin status to achieve the known and potential health Benefits.

Helga Refsum – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly the importance of long chain ω 3 fatty acids and B Vitamin status in a randomized controlled trial
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2015
    Co-Authors: Fredrik Jerneren, Helga Refsum, Stephen M Smith, Abderrahim Oulhaj, Amany K Elshorbagy, A D Smith

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Increased Brain atrophy rates are common in older people with cognitive impairment, particularly in those who eventually convert to Alzheimer disease. Plasma concentrations of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and homocysteine are associated with the development of Brain atrophy and dementia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether plasma ω-3 fatty acid concentrations (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) modify the treatment effect of homocysteine-lowering B Vitamins on Brain atrophy rates in a placeBo-controlled trial (VITACOG). DESIGN: This retrospective analysis included 168 elderly people (≥70 y) with mild cognitive impairment, randomly assigned either to placeBo (n = 83) or to daily high-dose B Vitamin supplementation (folic acid, 0.8 mg; Vitamin B-6, 20 mg; Vitamin B-12, 0.5 mg) (n = 85). The suBjects underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans at Baseline and 2 y later. The effect of the intervention was analyzed according to tertiles of Baseline ω-3 fatty acid concentrations. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction (P = 0.024) Between B Vitamin treatment and plasma comBined ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) on Brain atrophy rates. In suBjects with high Baseline ω-3 fatty acids (>590 μmol/L), B Vitamin treatment slowed the mean atrophy rate By 40.0% compared with placeBo (P = 0.023). B Vitamin treatment had no significant effect on the rate of atrophy among suBjects with low Baseline ω-3 fatty acids (<390 μmol/L). High Baseline ω-3 fatty acids were associated with a slower rate of Brain atrophy in the B Vitamin group But not in the placeBo group. CONCLUSIONS: The Beneficial effect of B Vitamin treatment on Brain atrophy was oBserved only in suBjects with high plasma ω-3 fatty acids. It is also suggested that the Beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids on Brain atrophy may Be confined to suBjects with good B Vitamin status. The results highlight the importance of identifying suBgroups likely to Benefit in clinical trials. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN94410159.

  • preventing alzheimer s disease related gray matter atrophy By B Vitamin treatment
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013
    Co-Authors: Gwenaelle Douaud, Helga Refsum, Celeste A. De Jager, Robin Jacoby, Thomas E Nichols, Stephen M Smith

    Abstract:

    Is it possiBle to prevent atrophy of key Brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance By lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B Vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly suBjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose BVitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, Vitamin B6 20 mg, Vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole Brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further By demonstrating that BVitamin treatment reduces, By as much as seven fold, the cereBral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulneraBle to the AD process, including the medial temporal loBe. In the placeBo group, higher homocysteine levels at Baseline are associated with faster GM atrophy, But this deleterious effect is largely prevented By BVitamin treatment. We additionally show that the Beneficial effect of B Vitamins is confined to participants with high homocysteine (aBove the median, 11 µmol/L) and that, in these participants, a causal Bayesian network analysis indicates the following chain of events: B Vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereBy slowing cognitive decline. Our results show that BVitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific Brain regions that are a key component of the AD process and that are associated with cognitive decline. Further BVitamin supplementation trials focusing on elderly suBjets with high homocysteine levels are warranted to see if progression to dementia can Be prevented.

  • Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy By BVitamin treatment
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013
    Co-Authors: Gwenaelle Douaud, Helga Refsum, Celeste A. De Jager, RONALD JACOBY, Thomas Nichols, Stephen M Smith, A. David Smith

    Abstract:

    Is it possiBle to prevent atrophy of key Brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance By lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B Vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly suBjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose BVitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, Vitamin B6 20 mg, Vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole Brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further By demonstrating that BVitamin treatment reduces, By as much as seven fold, the cereBral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulneraBle to the AD process, including the medial temporal loBe. In the placeBo group, higher homocysteine levels at Baseline are associated with faster GM atrophy, But this deleterious effect is largely prevented By BVitamin treatment. We additionally show that the Beneficial effect of B Vitamins is confined to participants with high homocysteine (aBove the median, 11 µmol/L) and that, in these participants, a causal Bayesian network analysis indicates the following chain of events: B Vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereBy slowing cognitive decline. Our results show that BVitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific Brain regions that are a key component of the AD process and that are associated with cognitive decline. Further BVitamin supplementation trials focusing on elderly suBjets with high homocysteine levels are warranted to see if progression to dementia can Be prevented.

Per Magne Ueland – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Genotype, BVitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes
    FASEB Journal, 2016
    Co-Authors: Sara R. Zwart, Per Magne Ueland, Jesse F Gregory, Steven H Zeisel, Charles R. Gibson, Thomas H. Mader, Jason M. Kinchen, Robert Ploutz-snyder, Martina A. Heer, Scott M Smith

    Abstract:

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a suBset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhiBit higher concentrations of 1-carBon metaBolites (e.g., homocysteine) Before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carBon metaBolism genes contriBute to susceptiBility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The numBer of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 Both contriButed to the odds of visual disturBances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that BVitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we oBserved. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and BVitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association Between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for Both space travelers and terrestrial patients.

  • Motor development related to duration of exclusive Breastfeeding, B Vitamin status and B12 supplementation in infants with a Birth weight Between 2000-3000 g, results from a randomized intervention trial
    BMC Pediatrics, 2015
    Co-Authors: Ingrid Kristin Torsvik, Per Magne Ueland, O Midttun, Trond Markestad, Anne-lise Bjørke Monsen

    Abstract:

    BackgroundExclusive Breastfeeding for 6 months is assumed to ensure adequate micronutrients for term infants. Our oBjective was to investigate the effects of prolonged Breastfeeding on B Vitamin status and neurodevelopment in 80 infants with suBnormal Birth weights (2000-3000 g) and examine if coBalamin supplementation may Benefit motor function in infants who developed Biochemical signs of impaired coBalamin function (total homocysteine (tHcy) > 6.5 μmol/L) at 6 months.MethodsLevels of coBalamin, folate, riBoflavin and pyridoxal 5´-phosphate, and the metaBolic markers tHcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA), were determined at 6 weeks, 4 and 6 months ( n  = 80/68/66). Neurodevelopment was assessed with the AlBerta Infants Motor Scale (AIMS) and the parental questionnaire Ages and Stages (ASQ) at 6 months. At 6 months, 32 of 36 infants with tHcy > 6.5 μmol/L were enrolled in a douBle Blind randomized controlled trial to receive 400 μg hydroxycoBalamin intramuscularly ( n  = 16) or sham injection ( n  = 16). Biochemical status and neurodevelopment were evaluated after one month.ResultsExcept for folate, infants who were exclusively Breastfed for >1 month had lower B Vitamin levels at all assessments and higher tHcy and MMA levels at 4 and 6 months. At 6 months, these infants had lower AIMS scores ( p  = 0.03) and ASQ gross motor scores ( p  = 0.01). Compared to the placeBo group, coBalamin treatment resulted in a decrease in plasma tHcy ( p  

  • Maternal B Vitamin status in pregnancy week 18 according to reported use of folic acid supplements
    Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 2013
    Co-Authors: Anne Lise Bjørke Monsen, Christine Roth, Per Magnus, O Midttun, Roy M. Nilsen, Ted Reichborn-kjennerud, Camilla Stoltenberg, Ezra Susser, Stein Emil Vollset, Per Magne Ueland

    Abstract:

    SCOPE: Epidemiological studies on the association Between pregnancy outcomes and use of periconceptional folic acid are often Based on maternal reported intake. Use of folic acid during pregnancy is associated with a higher socioeconomic status known to have an impact on diet quality. We have studied plasma B Vitamin status according to reported use of folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period in Norwegian women.\n\nMETHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of folate, coBalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (Vitamin B6), riBoflavin, and the metaBolic markers total homocysteine, methylmalonic acid and 3-hydro-xykynurenine were measured in pregnancy week 18 and related to reported intake of folic acid from 4 weeks prior to conception throughout week 18 in 2911 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted By the Norwegian Institute of PuBlic Health. Being a folic acid user during the periconceptional period was associated with a Better socioeconomic status, and a higher intake of several micronutrients, including Vitamins, trace-metals, and omega 3 fatty acids. Folic acid users had a significantly Better plasma B Vitamin status.\n\nCONCLUSION: Epidemiological data Based on maternal reported intake of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, should take into account the numerous nutritional implications, in addition to higher Blood folate levels, of Being a folic acid user.