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Jordi Riba – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis Caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro
Scientific Reports, 2017Co-Authors: Jose A. Morales-garcía, Mario De La Fuente Revenga, Amanda Feilding, Sandra Alonso-gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-franco, Ana Perez-castillo, Jordi RibaAbstract:
Banisteriopsis Caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B . Caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B . Caapi , and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro . In neurospheres prepared from progenitor cells obtained from the subventricular and the subgranular zones of adult mice brains, all compounds stimulated neural stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation into adult neurons. These findings suggest that modulation of brain plasticity could be a major contribution to the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca. They also expand the potential application of B . Caapi alkaloids to other brain disorders that may benefit from stimulation of endogenous neural precursor niches.
Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potentialBrain Research Bulletin, 2016Co-Authors: Elisabet Domínguez-clavé, Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Juan C. Pascual, Enrique Alvarez, Mario De La Fuente Revenga, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi RibaAbstract:
Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis Caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. Caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. Caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one’s own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders.
Ayahuasca and the Treatment of Drug AddictionThe Therapeutic Use of Ayahuasca, 2013Co-Authors: José Carlos Bouso, Jordi RibaAbstract:
The public health impact of addiction, with its high relapse rates and the limited efficacy of available treatments, has prompted the search for alternative therapeutic approaches. In recent times, there has been renewed interest in the anti-addictive potential of psychedelics. Consumption of ayahuasca, the N,N-dimethyltryptamine-containing Amazonian plant tea, is experiencing unprecedented expansion. The ritual use of this brew, obtained from Banisteriopsis Caapi and Psychotria viridis, in shamanistic and religious contexts is now popular in Europe and North America. Studies of long-term ayahuasca-church members in Brazil have recorded discontinuation of drug use after starting ayahuasca use. Furthermore, several centers that offer therapies based on ayahuasca as a means to treat addictive behavior claim higher success rates than more traditional approaches. In this chapter, we review the pharmacology of ayahuasca and the data available concerning its efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction. Although the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, based on the evidence examined, is promising, the lack of systematic studies precludes firm conclusions. Ideally, research methodology should be improved, with future studies implementing well-planned clinical protocols with adequate controls, end-points, and follow-up.
A D Lees – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
activities of extract and constituents of Banisteriopsis Caapi relevant to parkinsonismPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2003Co-Authors: M J Schwarz, Peter J Houghton, Sarah Rose, Peter Jenner, A D LeesAbstract:
Abstract Dopamine deficiency is characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and treatments aim at elevating levels by administration of its precursor l -dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA), or inhibiting monoamine oxidases (MAOs), thus preventing its breakdown. Reports of improvements in PD patients treated with Banisteriopsis Caapi extracts stimulated investigation of B. Caapi stem extract and its two ingredients, harmine and harmaline for these activities. Tests for MAO inhibition using liver homogenate showed that extract and harmaline showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of MAO A (IC 50 1.24 μg/ml and IC 50 4.54 nM, respectively) but had little effect on MAO B activity. The extract at 2.5 mg/ml caused a highly significant increase in release of [ 3 H]dopamine from rat striatal slices, as did 200 μM harmine and 6 μM harmaline. In both these experiments, the amount of harmine present could not account for the total activity of the extract. The ability of harmine and harmaline to stimulate dopamine release is a novel finding. These results give some basis to the reputed usefulness of B. Caapi stem extract in the treatment of PD.
Keith A Holmes – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
antibiosis mycoparasitism and colonization success for endophytic trichoderma isolates with biological control potential in theobroma cacaoBiological Control, 2008Co-Authors: Bryan A. Bailey, Mary D Strem, Jayne Crozier, Sarah E Thomas, G J Samuels, Bryan T Vinyard, Keith A HolmesAbstract:
Theobroma cacao (cacao) suffers severe yield losses in many major production areas due to fungus-induced diseases. Cacao supports a complex endophytic microbial community that offers candidates for biocontrol of cacao diseases. Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from the live sapwood of trunks of Theobroma species, pods of Theobroma species, and a liana (Banisteriopsis Caapi). Fifteen isolates of Trichoderma, potentially representing seven species, were selected for characterization of the influence of seedling inoc- ulation on the establishment of endophytic growth in cacao seedlings. An isolate of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was also included. The isolates studied in vitro varied in their abilities to produce metabolites inhibitory to Moniliophthora roreri and in their abilities to para- sitize M. roreri cultures. The five inoculation methods used were: (1) inoculation of germinating seed on agar plates; (2) plate inoculation followed by planting in sterile soil; (3) planting sterile seed in pre-inoculated soil; (4) inoculation of emerged seedlings at the soil surface; and (5) inoculation of emerged seedlings between the cotyledon and stem. All the isolates studied were able to colonize Theobroma cacao seedlings, but isolates DIS 110a (Trichoderma cf. harzianum), DIS 219b (T. hamatum), DIS 219f (T. harzianum), and TA (T. asperellum) were the most efficient across inoculation methods. These same isolates also caused moderate to severe discoloration of roots of cacao seedlings germinated on water agar plates. Isolates DIS 173a (T. spirale), DIS 185c (T. stromaticum), and Col (Colletotrichum gloeospo- rioides) were inefficient colonizers of cacao. Most of the isolates studied were able to establish an endophytic relationship with cacao by colonizing the above ground portions of the cacao seedling, and exploitation of this characteristic could lead to the development of novel biocontrol strategies for control of cacao diseases. 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Taxonomy and biocontrol potential of a new species of Trichoderma from the Amazon basin of South AmericaMycological Progress, 2004Co-Authors: Keith A Holmes, Sarah E Thomas, Hans-josef Schroers, Harry C. Evans, Gary J. SamuelsAbstract:
The new species Trichoderma ovalisporum is described and its biocontrol potential against Crinipellis species is analyzed. Using partial nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and partial nuclear actin gene intron and exon sequences, T. ovalisporum is identified as a member of Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma and as a close relative of T. koningii -like taxa that have ellipsoidal to oblong, smooth conidia. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal gene cluster did not resolve the phylogeny of T. ovalisporum and its closest relatives. Trichoderma ovalisporum is morphologically similar to T. koningii, Hypocrea stilbohypoxyli , and three as yet undescribed Trichoderma taxa. It differs from its close relatives in having smaller, ovoidal conidia and in its fast rate of growth at 30 °C. Trichoderma ovalisporum was isolated twice: once from witches’ broom ( Crinipellis perniciosa )-infected tissue of a liana ( Banisteriopsis Caapi, Malpighiaceae ) collected in Ecuador. The second isolation was from the healthy bole of a mature tree of Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçu, Malvaceae ) collected in Brazil (Pará). The liana isolate reinfected and was reisolated from meristematic tissues of seedlings of Theobroma cacao , and inhibited radial growth of the frosty pod rot pathogen ( Crinipellis roreri ) in vitro. It also persisted on the surface, and within the tissues, of cocoa pods in the field for at least 10 weeks.