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Bile Acid Metabolite

The Experts below are selected from a list of 36 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Gerald W. Tannock – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The Bowel Microbiota Moderates Host Physiological Responses to Dietary Konjac
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Wayne Young, Blair Lawley, Don E. Otter, Gemma Henderson, Gerald W. Tannock

    Abstract:

    8 Animal Abstract Diets rich in complex carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small bowel can alter large bowel ecology and microbiota biochemistry because the carbohydrates become substrates for bacterial growth and metabolism. Conventional or germ- free weanling rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 1.25, 2.5, or 5% konjac (KJ), a commonly used ingredient in Asian foods, for 28 d. In the absence of a bowel microbiota, 5% KJ elicited a significant increase in colonic goblet cell numbers and increased expression of mast cell protease genes and of genes that were overrepresented in the KEGG pathway ”Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450” relative to the control diet. In contrast, feeding 5% KJ caused few changes in mucosal gene expression in conventional rats. Analysis of the colonic microbiota of conventional rats fed KJ showed modest increases in the proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes relative to rats fed the control diet, with a concomitant reduction in Firmicutes, which included a 50% reduction in Lactobacillus abundance. Colonic concentrations of short-chain fatty Acids and colonic crypt lengths were increased by feeding KJ. Goblet cell numbers were greater in conventional rats fed KJ relative to the control diet but were lower compared with germ-free animals. Serum Metabolite profiles were different in germ-free and conventional rats. Metabolites that differed in concentration included several phospholipids, a Bile Acid Metabolite, and an intermediate product of tryptophan metabolism. Overall, KJ in the diet was potentially damaging to the bowel mucosa and produced a protective response from the host. This response was reduced by the presence of the bowel microbiota, which therefore ameliorated potentially detrimental effects of dietary KJ. J. Nutr. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.174854.

  • Bowel Microbiota Moderate Host Physiological Responses to Dietary Konjac in Weanling Rats
    Journal of Nutrition, 2013
    Co-Authors: Wayne Young, Blair Lawley, Don E. Otter, Gemma Henderson, Gerald W. Tannock

    Abstract:

    : Diets rich in complex carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small bowel can alter large bowel ecology and microbiota biochemistry because the carbohydrates become substrates for bacterial growth and metabolism. Conventional or germ-free weanling rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 1.25, 2.5, or 5% konjac (KJ), a commonly used ingredient in Asian foods, for 28 d. In the absence of bowel microbiota, 5% KJ elicited a significant increase in colonic goblet cell numbers and increased expression of mast cell protease genes and of genes that were overrepresented in the KEGG pathway “Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450” relative to the control diet. In contrast, feeding 5% KJ caused few changes in mucosal gene expression in conventional rats. Analysis of the colonic microbiota of conventional rats fed KJ showed modest increases in the proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes relative to rats fed the control diet, with a concomitant reduction in Firmicutes, which included a 50% reduction in Lactobacillus abundance. Colonic concentrations of short-chain fatty Acids and colonic crypt lengths were increased by feeding KJ. Goblet cell numbers were greater in conventional rats fed KJ relative to the control diet but were lower compared with germ-free animals. Serum Metabolite profiles were different in germ-free and conventional rats. Metabolites that differed in concentration included several phospholipids, a Bile Acid Metabolite, and an intermediate product of tryptophan metabolism. Overall, KJ in the diet was potentially damaging to the bowel mucosa and produced a protective response from the host. This response was reduced by the presence of the bowel microbiota, which therefore ameliorated potentially detrimental effects of dietary KJ.

J Goto – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Synthesis of 3α,7α,14α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic Acid: A Potential Primary Bile Acid in Vertebrates
    Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2004
    Co-Authors: Genta Kakiyama, J Goto, Nariyasu Mano, Takashi Iida, Takaaki Goto, Toshio Nambara

    Abstract:

    : A method for the synthesis of 3alpha,7alpha,14alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic Acid which is a possible candidate of Bile Acid Metabolite in vertebrates was developed. The principal reactions involved were 1). stereoselective remote-hydroxylation of methyl ursodeoxycholate diacetate with dimethyldioxirane, 2). site-selective protection at C-3 by tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the resulting 3alpha,7alpha,14alpha-trihydroxy ester, 3). oxidation of the diol with pyridinium dichromate adsorbed on activated alumina, 4). stereoselective reduction of the 7-ketone with zinc borohydride, and 5). cleavage of the protecting group at C-3 with p-toluenesulfonic Acid. A facile elimination of the 14alpha-hydroxy group under an Acidic or neutral condition is also described. The synthetic reference compound is now available for comparison with unidentified biliary Bile Acids detected in vertebrate Bile.

  • Monoclonal antibodies generated against an affinity-labeled immune complex of an anti-Bile Acid Metabolite antibody: an approach to noncompetitive hapten immunoassays based on anti-idiotype or anti-metatype antibodies.
    Journal of immunological methods, 2000
    Co-Authors: N. Kobayashi, Hiroshi Oiwa, K Kubota, Saburo Sakoda, J Goto

    Abstract:

    Conventional immunoassays for haptens such as steroids and synthetic drugs are dependent on the competitive reaction between an unlabeled antigen (analyte) and a labeled antigen against a limited amount of anti-hapten antibody. Although noncompetitive immunoassay procedures such as two-site immunometric assays offer a much higher sensitivity, direct application of this principle to haptens has been difficult due to their small molecular mass precluding simultaneous binding by two antibody molecules. Here, we have attempted to develop a noncompetitive immunoassay system based on anti-idiotype or anti-metatype antibodies. Ursodeoxycholic Acid 7-N-acetylglucosaminide (UDCA 7-NAG), which is a Bile Acid Metabolite (molecular weight, 595.8), was selected as the model hapten. A/J mice were immunized with a monoclonal antibody against UDCA 7-NAG, which had been affinity-labeled with a relevant hapten derivative. The fusion between the immune spleen cells and P3/NS1/1-Ag4-1 myeloma cells yielded four kinds of alpha-type and two kinds of beta-type monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, each recognizing the framework region and paratope of the anti-hapten antibody. The use of a selected combination between alpha-type and beta-type antibodies together with the anti-hapten antibody provided a noncompetitive assay system with a subfemtomole order sensitivity (detection limit, 118 amol) and a practical specificity.

  • Monoclonal antibodies generated against an affinity-labeled immune complex of an anti-Bile Acid Metabolite antibody: an approach to noncompetitive hapten immunoassays based on anti-idiotype or anti-metatype antibodies.
    Journal of Immunological Methods, 2000
    Co-Authors: N. Kobayashi, Hiroshi Oiwa, K Kubota, Saburo Sakoda, J Goto

    Abstract:

    Abstract Conventional immunoassays for haptens such as steroids and synthetic drugs are dependent on the competitive reaction between an unlabeled antigen (analyte) and a labeled antigen against a limited amount of anti-hapten antibody. Although noncompetitive immunoassay procedures such as two-site immunometric assays offer a much higher sensitivity, direct application of this principle to haptens has been difficult due to their small molecular mass precluding simultaneous binding by two antibody molecules. Here, we have attempted to develop a noncompetitive immunoassay system based on anti-idiotype or anti-metatype antibodies. Ursodeoxycholic Acid 7-N-acetylglucosaminide (UDCA 7-NAG), which is a Bile Acid Metabolite (molecular weight, 595.8), was selected as the model hapten. A/J mice were immunized with a monoclonal antibody against UDCA 7-NAG, which had been affinity-labeled with a relevant hapten derivative. The fusion between the immune spleen cells and P3/NS1/1-Ag4-1 myeloma cells yielded four kinds of α-type and two kinds of β-type monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, each recognizing the framework region and paratope of the anti-hapten antibody. The use of a selected combination between α-type and β-type antibodies together with the anti-hapten antibody provided a noncompetitive assay system with a subfemtomole order sensitivity (detection limit, 118 amol) and a practical specificity.

Wayne Young – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The Bowel Microbiota Moderates Host Physiological Responses to Dietary Konjac
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Wayne Young, Blair Lawley, Don E. Otter, Gemma Henderson, Gerald W. Tannock

    Abstract:

    8 Animal Abstract Diets rich in complex carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small bowel can alter large bowel ecology and microbiota biochemistry because the carbohydrates become substrates for bacterial growth and metabolism. Conventional or germ- free weanling rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 1.25, 2.5, or 5% konjac (KJ), a commonly used ingredient in Asian foods, for 28 d. In the absence of a bowel microbiota, 5% KJ elicited a significant increase in colonic goblet cell numbers and increased expression of mast cell protease genes and of genes that were overrepresented in the KEGG pathway ”Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450” relative to the control diet. In contrast, feeding 5% KJ caused few changes in mucosal gene expression in conventional rats. Analysis of the colonic microbiota of conventional rats fed KJ showed modest increases in the proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes relative to rats fed the control diet, with a concomitant reduction in Firmicutes, which included a 50% reduction in Lactobacillus abundance. Colonic concentrations of short-chain fatty Acids and colonic crypt lengths were increased by feeding KJ. Goblet cell numbers were greater in conventional rats fed KJ relative to the control diet but were lower compared with germ-free animals. Serum Metabolite profiles were different in germ-free and conventional rats. Metabolites that differed in concentration included several phospholipids, a Bile Acid Metabolite, and an intermediate product of tryptophan metabolism. Overall, KJ in the diet was potentially damaging to the bowel mucosa and produced a protective response from the host. This response was reduced by the presence of the bowel microbiota, which therefore ameliorated potentially detrimental effects of dietary KJ. J. Nutr. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.174854.

  • Bowel Microbiota Moderate Host Physiological Responses to Dietary Konjac in Weanling Rats
    Journal of Nutrition, 2013
    Co-Authors: Wayne Young, Blair Lawley, Don E. Otter, Gemma Henderson, Gerald W. Tannock

    Abstract:

    : Diets rich in complex carbohydrates that resist digestion in the small bowel can alter large bowel ecology and microbiota biochemistry because the carbohydrates become substrates for bacterial growth and metabolism. Conventional or germ-free weanling rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 1.25, 2.5, or 5% konjac (KJ), a commonly used ingredient in Asian foods, for 28 d. In the absence of bowel microbiota, 5% KJ elicited a significant increase in colonic goblet cell numbers and increased expression of mast cell protease genes and of genes that were overrepresented in the KEGG pathway “Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450” relative to the control diet. In contrast, feeding 5% KJ caused few changes in mucosal gene expression in conventional rats. Analysis of the colonic microbiota of conventional rats fed KJ showed modest increases in the proportions of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes relative to rats fed the control diet, with a concomitant reduction in Firmicutes, which included a 50% reduction in Lactobacillus abundance. Colonic concentrations of short-chain fatty Acids and colonic crypt lengths were increased by feeding KJ. Goblet cell numbers were greater in conventional rats fed KJ relative to the control diet but were lower compared with germ-free animals. Serum Metabolite profiles were different in germ-free and conventional rats. Metabolites that differed in concentration included several phospholipids, a Bile Acid Metabolite, and an intermediate product of tryptophan metabolism. Overall, KJ in the diet was potentially damaging to the bowel mucosa and produced a protective response from the host. This response was reduced by the presence of the bowel microbiota, which therefore ameliorated potentially detrimental effects of dietary KJ.