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Biological Monitoring

The Experts below are selected from a list of 294 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

K Jones – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • A human exposure study to investigate Biological Monitoring methods for 2-butoxyethanol
    Biomarkers, 2020
    Co-Authors: K Jones, John Cocker

    Abstract:

    2-Butoxyethanol is a glycol ether widely used in printing inks, varnishes and cleaning fluids. As skin absorption can be significant, Biological Monitoring is useful in Monitoring worker exposure. A number of analytes and matrices have been used previously, including 2-butoxyethanol in blood and free and total 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine. Using a combination of a volunteer study and samples from exposed workers, we compared the applicability of some of the Biological Monitoring markers available. We conclude that 2-butoxyethanol in blood is not a suitable marker for Biological Monitoring due to sampling problems. In view of the low-level exposures reported in occupational surveys, 2-butoxyethanol in breath is also unsuitable because of a lack of sensitivity. Measuring 2-butoxyacetic acid in blood is possible, although non-invasive urine samples are preferred. Free 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine has previously been widely used; however, we found that the extent of conjugation of 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine…

  • Biological Monitoring guidance values for chemical incidents
    Toxicology Letters, 2014
    Co-Authors: John Cocker, K Jones

    Abstract:

    Abstract Biological Monitoring is a useful tool to assess occupational and environmental exposure following a wide range of chemical incidents. Guidance values are available from international organisations to help interpret the result of Biological Monitoring. In addition, guidance values based on the 90th percentile of Biological Monitoring data obtained under conditions of good exposure control may help identify lapses in control and the need for remedial action to improve controls and reduce risk. In all cases interpretation of bioMonitoring results following incidents needs care and in particular reference to the time of sample collection and basis of the guidance values. BioMonitoring guidance values specifically derived for chemical incident scenarios are not available but would be of great help to interpret Biological Monitoring results.

  • isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying evidence from Biological Monitoring
    Chemical Hazards in Industry, 2013
    Co-Authors: K Jones, John Cocker, Mark Piney

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) national project. Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVR) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on Biological Monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000 participants and used to assess the effectiveness of controls and methods of working. Results are compared with pre and post SHAD measurements. Urine samples were received from 995 paint sprayers. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in urine, indicative of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were significantly lower (Mann-Whitney, p<0.0001) than had been seen in a wider population from previous HSE inspections and routine sampling. Where a sprayer's urinary HDA was above the quantification limit they were asked to send another sample after reviewing and improving exposure control measures. The results from these repeat samples were significantly lower than the original results. There was no difference in the exposures of sprayers using air-fed half-mask face-pieces compared with visor type air-fed breathing apparatus, or between spray booths and rooms. The analysis of HDA in urine is a useful technique for assessing exposure to isocyanates in paint sprayers. The simplicity of this approach has allowed wide-scale use of Biological Monitoring in an industry dominated by small and micro businesses. Biological Monitoring of exposure has enabled individual companies, and sprayers, to check that their control measures are working.This study showed overall lower levels of HDA in paint sprayers following SHADs. These lower levels have been maintained across a wider population of UK paint sprayers over the succeeding years. Whilst there may be many reasons for the reduction in exposure, the weight of evidence suggests that the key messages about exposure control measures, delivered through the SHADs and other means, were influential.

John Cocker – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • A human exposure study to investigate Biological Monitoring methods for 2-butoxyethanol
    Biomarkers, 2020
    Co-Authors: K Jones, John Cocker

    Abstract:

    2-Butoxyethanol is a glycol ether widely used in printing inks, varnishes and cleaning fluids. As skin absorption can be significant, Biological Monitoring is useful in Monitoring worker exposure. A number of analytes and matrices have been used previously, including 2-butoxyethanol in blood and free and total 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine. Using a combination of a volunteer study and samples from exposed workers, we compared the applicability of some of the Biological Monitoring markers available. We conclude that 2-butoxyethanol in blood is not a suitable marker for Biological Monitoring due to sampling problems. In view of the low-level exposures reported in occupational surveys, 2-butoxyethanol in breath is also unsuitable because of a lack of sensitivity. Measuring 2-butoxyacetic acid in blood is possible, although non-invasive urine samples are preferred. Free 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine has previously been widely used; however, we found that the extent of conjugation of 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine…

  • A perspective on Biological Monitoring guidance values.
    Toxicology Letters, 2014
    Co-Authors: John Cocker

    Abstract:

    Abstract Biological Monitoring (BM) is a useful tool for exposure assessment of substances that can be absorbed through the skin or where control relies on respiratory protection. This commentary briefly describes the various types of Biological Monitoring guidance values (BMGVs) that are available to help interpret BM results. Population background, reference and Biological equivalent values are available to help interpret BM data in a public health context and occupational guidance values are available for common workplace substances to help interpret results in terms of exposure rather than health. There is a clear need for occupational hygiene and health professionals to understand the basis of the guidance values and not use them as simple ‘limits’. There is also a clear need for more peer-reviewed published studies of workplace exposure to help develop BMGVs.

  • Biological Monitoring guidance values for chemical incidents
    Toxicology Letters, 2014
    Co-Authors: John Cocker, K Jones

    Abstract:

    Abstract Biological Monitoring is a useful tool to assess occupational and environmental exposure following a wide range of chemical incidents. Guidance values are available from international organisations to help interpret the result of Biological Monitoring. In addition, guidance values based on the 90th percentile of Biological Monitoring data obtained under conditions of good exposure control may help identify lapses in control and the need for remedial action to improve controls and reduce risk. In all cases interpretation of bioMonitoring results following incidents needs care and in particular reference to the time of sample collection and basis of the guidance values. BioMonitoring guidance values specifically derived for chemical incident scenarios are not available but would be of great help to interpret Biological Monitoring results.

Mark Piney – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying evidence from Biological Monitoring
    Chemical Hazards in Industry, 2013
    Co-Authors: K Jones, John Cocker, Mark Piney

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) national project. Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVR) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on Biological Monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000 participants and used to assess the effectiveness of controls and methods of working. Results are compared with pre and post SHAD measurements. Urine samples were received from 995 paint sprayers. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in urine, indicative of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were significantly lower (Mann-Whitney, p<0.0001) than had been seen in a wider population from previous HSE inspections and routine sampling. Where a sprayer's urinary HDA was above the quantification limit they were asked to send another sample after reviewing and improving exposure control measures. The results from these repeat samples were significantly lower than the original results. There was no difference in the exposures of sprayers using air-fed half-mask face-pieces compared with visor type air-fed breathing apparatus, or between spray booths and rooms. The analysis of HDA in urine is a useful technique for assessing exposure to isocyanates in paint sprayers. The simplicity of this approach has allowed wide-scale use of Biological Monitoring in an industry dominated by small and micro businesses. Biological Monitoring of exposure has enabled individual companies, and sprayers, to check that their control measures are working.This study showed overall lower levels of HDA in paint sprayers following SHADs. These lower levels have been maintained across a wider population of UK paint sprayers over the succeeding years. Whilst there may be many reasons for the reduction in exposure, the weight of evidence suggests that the key messages about exposure control measures, delivered through the SHADs and other means, were influential.

  • isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying evidence from Biological Monitoring
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2013
    Co-Authors: K Jones, John Cocker, Mark Piney

    Abstract:

    Aims: The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & safety Executive (HsE) national project. Methods: Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVr) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 safety and Health Awareness Days (sHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on Biological Monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000 participants and used to assess the effectiveness of controls and methods of working. results are compared with pre and post sHAD measurements. results: Urine samples were received from 995 paint sprayers. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in urine, indicative of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were significantly lower (Mann-Whitney, p<0.0001) than had been seen in a wider population from previous HsE inspections and routine sampling. Where a sprayer’s urinary HDA was above the quantification limit they were asked to send another sample after reviewing and improving exposure control measures. The results from these repeat samples were significantly lower than the original results. There was no difference in the exposures of sprayers using air-fed half-mask face-pieces compared with visor type air-fed breathing apparatus, or between spray booths and rooms. Conclusions: The analysis of HDA in urine is a useful technique for assessing exposure to isocyanates in paint sprayers. The simplicity of this approach has allowed wide-scale use of Biological Monitoring in an industry dominated by small and micro businesses. Biological Monitoring of exposure has enabled individual companies, and sprayers, to check that their control measures are working. This study showed overall lower levels of HDA in paint sprayers following sHADs. These lower levels have been maintained across a wider population of UK paint sprayers over the succeeding years. Whilst there may be many reasons for the reduction in exposure, the weight of evidence suggests that the key messages about exposure control measures, delivered through the sHADs and other means, were influential.