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Ian L Pepper – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparative Assessment of BGM and PLC/PRF/5 Cell Lines for Enteric Virus Detection in Biosolids
    Food and Environmental Virology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Sherif Abd-elmaksoud, Ian L Pepper, Charles P Gerba, N. Castro-del Campo, Charles P. Gerba, Ian L. Pepper, Kelly R. Bright

    Abstract:

    The buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell line is required for the detection of enteric viruses in Biosolids through a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the present study, BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines were evaluated for TCVA and for their use in determining the incidence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in raw sludge and Class B Biosolids. Six raw sludge and 17 Class B Biosolid samples were collected from 13 wastewater treatment plants from seven U.S. states. Samples were processed via organic flocculation and concentrate volumes equivalent to 4 g total solids were assayed on BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cell monolayers were observed for cytopathic effect (CPE) after two 14-days passages. Cell lysates were tested for the presence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses by PCR or RT-PCR. The PLC/PRF/5 cells detected more culturable viruses than the BGM cells by CPE (73.9% vs. 56.5%, respectively). 52% of the samples were positive for CPE using both cell lines. No viruses were detected in either cell line by PCR in flasks in which CPE was not observed. No adenoviruses were detected in 13 CPE-positive samples from BGM lysates. In contrast, of the 17 samples exhibiting CPE on PLC/PRF/5 cells, 14 were positive for adenoviruses (82.4%). In conclusion, PLC/PRF/5 cells were superior for the detection of adenoviruses in both raw sludge and Class B Biosolids. Thus, the use of BGM cells alone for TCVA may underestimate the viral concentration in sludge/Biosolid samples.

  • long term effects of land application of class b Biosolids on the soil microbial populations pathogens and activity
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2010
    Co-Authors: Huruy Zerzghi, Charles P Gerba, John P Brooks, Ian L Pepper

    Abstract:

    This study evaluated the influence of 20 annual land applications of Class B Biosolids on the soil microbial community. The potential benefits and hazards of land application were evaluated by analysis of surface soil samples collected following the 20th land application of Biosolids. The study was initiated in 1986 at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center, 21 miles north of Tucson, AZ. The final application of Biosolids was in March 2005, followed by growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from April through November 2005. Surface soil samples (0—30 cm) were collected monthly from March 2005, 2 wk after the final Biosolids application, through December 2005, and analyzed for soil microbial numbers. December samples were analyzed for additional soil microbial properties. Data show that land application of Class B Biosolids had no significant long-term effect on indigenous soil microbial numbers including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi compared to unamended control plots. Importantly, no bacterial or viral pathogens were detected in soil samples collected from Biosolid amended plots in December (10 mo after the last land application) demonstrating that pathogens introduced via Class B Biosolids only survived in soil transiently. However, plots that received Biosolids had significantly higher microbial activity or potential for microbial transformations, including nitrification, sulfur oxidation, and dehydrogenase activity, than control plots and plots receiving inorganic fertilizers. Overall, the 20 annual land applications showed no long-term adverse effects, and therefore, this study documents that land application of Biosolids at this particular site was sustainable throughout the 20-yr period, with respect to soil microbial properties.

  • Potential Regrowth and Recolonization of Salmonellae and Indicators in Biosolids and Biosolid-Amended Soil
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Kathleen J. Zaleski, Charles P Gerba, K. L. Josephson, Ian L Pepper

    Abstract:

    This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A Biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B Biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both Biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both Biosolids and Biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with Biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to Biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources.

Charles P Gerba – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Comparative Assessment of BGM and PLC/PRF/5 Cell Lines for Enteric Virus Detection in Biosolids
    Food and Environmental Virology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Sherif Abd-elmaksoud, Ian L Pepper, Charles P Gerba, N. Castro-del Campo, Charles P. Gerba, Ian L. Pepper, Kelly R. Bright

    Abstract:

    The buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell line is required for the detection of enteric viruses in Biosolids through a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the present study, BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines were evaluated for TCVA and for their use in determining the incidence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in raw sludge and Class B Biosolids. Six raw sludge and 17 Class B Biosolid samples were collected from 13 wastewater treatment plants from seven U.S. states. Samples were processed via organic flocculation and concentrate volumes equivalent to 4 g total solids were assayed on BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cell monolayers were observed for cytopathic effect (CPE) after two 14-days passages. Cell lysates were tested for the presence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses by PCR or RT-PCR. The PLC/PRF/5 cells detected more culturable viruses than the BGM cells by CPE (73.9% vs. 56.5%, respectively). 52% of the samples were positive for CPE using both cell lines. No viruses were detected in either cell line by PCR in flasks in which CPE was not observed. No adenoviruses were detected in 13 CPE-positive samples from BGM lysates. In contrast, of the 17 samples exhibiting CPE on PLC/PRF/5 cells, 14 were positive for adenoviruses (82.4%). In conclusion, PLC/PRF/5 cells were superior for the detection of adenoviruses in both raw sludge and Class B Biosolids. Thus, the use of BGM cells alone for TCVA may underestimate the viral concentration in sludge/Biosolid samples.

  • long term effects of land application of class b Biosolids on the soil microbial populations pathogens and activity
    Journal of Environmental Quality, 2010
    Co-Authors: Huruy Zerzghi, Charles P Gerba, John P Brooks, Ian L Pepper

    Abstract:

    This study evaluated the influence of 20 annual land applications of Class B Biosolids on the soil microbial community. The potential benefits and hazards of land application were evaluated by analysis of surface soil samples collected following the 20th land application of Biosolids. The study was initiated in 1986 at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center, 21 miles north of Tucson, AZ. The final application of Biosolids was in March 2005, followed by growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from April through November 2005. Surface soil samples (0—30 cm) were collected monthly from March 2005, 2 wk after the final Biosolids application, through December 2005, and analyzed for soil microbial numbers. December samples were analyzed for additional soil microbial properties. Data show that land application of Class B Biosolids had no significant long-term effect on indigenous soil microbial numbers including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi compared to unamended control plots. Importantly, no bacterial or viral pathogens were detected in soil samples collected from Biosolid amended plots in December (10 mo after the last land application) demonstrating that pathogens introduced via Class B Biosolids only survived in soil transiently. However, plots that received Biosolids had significantly higher microbial activity or potential for microbial transformations, including nitrification, sulfur oxidation, and dehydrogenase activity, than control plots and plots receiving inorganic fertilizers. Overall, the 20 annual land applications showed no long-term adverse effects, and therefore, this study documents that land application of Biosolids at this particular site was sustainable throughout the 20-yr period, with respect to soil microbial properties.

  • Potential Regrowth and Recolonization of Salmonellae and Indicators in Biosolids and Biosolid-Amended Soil
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2005
    Co-Authors: Kathleen J. Zaleski, Charles P Gerba, K. L. Josephson, Ian L Pepper

    Abstract:

    This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A Biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B Biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both Biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both Biosolids and Biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with Biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to Biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources.

Brett P Goodman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • beneficial or biohazard how the media frame Biosolids
    Public Understanding of Science, 2006
    Co-Authors: Robyn J Goodman, Brett P Goodman

    Abstract:

    This study looked at how the media framed Biosolids, or treated sewage sludge, from 1994 to 2004 by analyzing the 13 media frames found in 286 Biosolid-related articles from newspapers in Florida, Virginia, and California. The researchers found the articles framed Biosolids as a regulatory or legal issue most often, and most of the frames’ tones were neutral (1,958). However, negative tone (507) happened three times more often than positive tone (149), and environmental, management, and public nuisance framing tended to be more negative than any of the other frames. Neither the frames themselves nor the tones had statistically significant changes over the past decade. Regarding the sources used in the stories, the most frequent source was local government officials, which were used twice as frequently as any other source, followed by corporations (16 percent) and citizens (14 percent). These findings should help Biosolid producers and officials in developing a media strategy that is proactive toward shapi…

  • Beneficial or biohazard? How the media frame Biosolids
    Public Understanding of Science, 2006
    Co-Authors: J. Robyn Goodman, Brett P Goodman

    Abstract:

    This study looked at how the media framed Biosolids, or treated sewage sludge, from 1994 to 2004 by analyzing the 13 media frames found in 286 Biosolid-related articles from newspapers in Florida, Virginia, and California. The researchers found the articles framed Biosolids as a regulatory or legal issue most often, and most of the frames’ tones were neutral (1,958). However, negative tone (507) happened three times more often than positive tone (149), and environmental, management, and public nuisance framing tended to be more negative than any of the other frames. Neither the frames themselves nor the tones had statistically significant changes over the past decade. Regarding the sources used in the stories, the most frequent source was local government officials, which were used twice as frequently as any other source, followed by corporations (16 percent) and citizens (14 percent). These findings should help Biosolid producers and officials in developing a media strategy that is proactive toward shaping public opinion rather than reactive to an issue that makes its way to the media and spurs public concern.