Blubber Oil - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Blubber Oil

The Experts below are selected from a list of 141 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Fereidoon Shahidi – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Food and Health Applications of Marine Nutraceuticals: a Review
    Seafoods — Quality Technology and Nutraceutical Applications, 2020
    Co-Authors: Cesarettin Alasalvar, Fereidoon Shahidi, Peter C. Quantick

    Abstract:

    With the growing public awareness of the nutritional, diet and health benefits of Seafoods, the stage is now to set for the development of mainstream nutraceutical products. Application of marine-based nutraceuticals includes fish Oil (mainly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), seal Blubber Oil, algal Oil, shark liver Oil and squalene, shark cartilage, chitin, chitosan as well as their monomers and oligomers, enzymes, peptides and related compounds, vitamins (A, particularly its precursor β-carotene, D and E), seaweed (macroalgae) and its components, protein hydrolysates and other products has become a topic of great interest for both pharmaceutical and health food industries. This review provides an account of marine nutraceuticals and their application. Where available, the health benefits of nutraceuticals of interest are also discussed.

  • Two step-production of acylglycerols containing a high proportion of docosapentaenoic acid from marine omega-3 Oil and their oxidative stability
    Journal of Food Bioactives, 2018
    Co-Authors: Zhongshui Yu, Jiankang Wang, Fereidoon Shahidi

    Abstract:

    The objective of this study was to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) from seal Blubber Oil in an innovative manner to produce a high content of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the resultant product. It also aimed at investigating the use of lipases as catalysts for synthesizing acylglycerols from glycerol and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates. Additionally, study of the oxidative stability of acylglycerols synthesized by lipases was intended. A two-stage urea complexation process was used to concentrate PUFA from seal Blubber Oil, giving rise to a DPA content of up to 24.0% in the product. Enzymatic synthesis of acyglycerols directly from glycerol and fatty acid concentrate was studied. Three lipases were used as biocatalysts for esterification. Lipase SP435 from Candida antarctica showed the highest activity for esterification. Effects of reaction parameters, namely temperature, time course and mole ratio of glycerol to fatty acid were followed with all three lipases. The optimal reaction time was 24 hr at 30 °C at a mole ratio of glycerol to fatty acid of 14:1. The maximum degree of acylglycerol synthesis was > 90%. The effect of time course and mole ratio of glycerol to fatty acid on acylglycerols distribution was also determined. The oxidative stability of different samples under Schaal-oven conditions at 60 °C showed that the oxidative stability of acylglycerols was better than that of the corresponding fatty acid esters.

  • Acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with omega-3 Oils and antioxidant activity of phenolipid products in in vitro and biological model systems.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013
    Co-Authors: Jiankang Wang, Fereidoon Shahidi

    Abstract:

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with seal Blubber Oil (SBO) and menhaden Oil (MHO) was carried out, followed by identification of major phenolipids in the resultant acidolysis mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Separation of phenolipid components from the resultant acidolysis mixture was achieved using flash column chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the phenolipids were examined in in vitro assays and biological model systems. The major phenolipids identified from acidolysis mixtures with both SBO and MHO included eight phenolic monoacylglycerols and eight phenolic diacylglycerols. Phenolipids derived from SBO and MHO generally showed good antioxidant potential in the systems tested. The prepared phenolipids exhibited high scavenging capacity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals and displayed reducing power, strong inhibitory effect on bleaching of β-carotene, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidatio…

Udaya N Wanasundara – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Lipolytic activity of enzymes from germinating seeds of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).
    Journal of Food Lipids, 2001
    Co-Authors: P K J P D Wanasundara, Udaya N Wanasundara, Fereidoon Shahidi

    Abstract:

    Sesame (Sesumum indicum) seeds were germinated for seven days under laboratory conditions and the lipolytic activity of the defatted, dried seedlings was determined. Germination increased the lipolytic activity of sesame seeds and the highest activity was observed on day-4. The lipases of four days germinated sesame seeds were able to hydrolyze mainly the saturated fatty acids from seal Blubber Oil (SBO). Reaction temperature, incubation period and Oil-to-seedling powder ratio had a significant effect on the hydrolysis of saturated fatty acids, thereby concentrating unsaturated (mono- and polyunsaturated) fatty acids of seal Blubber Oil.

  • effects of processing and squalene on composition and oxidative stability of seal Blubber Oil
    Journal of Food Lipids, 1999
    Co-Authors: Fereidoon Shahidi, Udaya N Wanasundara

    Abstract:

    Effects of processing on constituents of seal Blubber Oil and that of squalene on oxidative stability of several Oils were monitored. The content of α-tocopherol in Oil decreased during processing, especially at the bleaching and deodorization steps. There was also a concurrent reduction in the contents of squalene and free fatty acids, especially during deodorization. Oils treated with squalene did not show any improved oxidative stability and in some cases were even less stable.

  • concentration of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal Blubber Oil by urea complexation optimization of reaction conditions
    Food Chemistry, 1999
    Co-Authors: Udaya N Wanasundara, Fereidoon Shahidi

    Abstract:

    Abstract Production of omega-3 fatty acid concentrates from seal Blubber Oil (SBO) was optimized. In this process, the content of total ω3-fatty acids, Y1; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Y2; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Y3 in the final product was maximized. A three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the effect of urea-to-fatty acid ratio (X1), crystallization time (X2), and crystallization temperature (X3). Second-order polynomial regression models for Y1, Y2 and Y3 were employed to generate response surfaces. Under optimum conditions the maximum amount of total ω3 fatty acids (88.2%) from SBO was obtained at a urea-to-fatty acid ratio of 4.5, a crystallization time of 24 h, and a crystallization temperature of −10°C. ©

Natale G Frega – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Characterization of Phospholipid Molecular Species by Means of HPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    Tandem Mass Spectrometry – Applications and Principles, 2012
    Co-Authors: Natale G Frega, Deborah Pacetti, Emmanuel Boselli

    Abstract:

    Phospholipids are the main constituents of the permeability barrier of cells and subcellular organelles. The phospholipid bilayer is the environment in which isolated proteins or dynamic nanoassemblies of sterols, sphingolipids, and proteins, called lipid rafts, act their vital functions, such as energy transduction, signal transduction, solute transport, DNA replication, protein targeting and trafficking, cell-cell recognition, secretion and many others (Lingwood et al., 2010). Christie et al. (2011) reported a detailed description of the general structure of phospholipids. According to Sud et al., 2007, phoshopholipids represent the category of lipids with the highest variety of structures (7775), followed in descending order, by polyketides (6713), fatty acyls (3942), sphingolipids (3936), glycerolipids (3044), sterol lipids (2196) and others. The positive effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on hepatic lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis, obesity-related disorders and cardiovascular disease is a consistent experimental evidence (Shirouchi et al., 2007). The daily intake of PL can vary from 2 to 8 g per day and represents 1-10% of total daily fat intake (Cohn et al., 2008). The main natural phospholipid is phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) which is completely absorbed in humans. Natural or synthetic PLs are extracted from eggs and soybean and used as drug delivery systems since decades (Papahadjopoulos, 1978). During brain development, one of the most efficient forms of supplying 3-fatty acids such as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are phospholipids (Bourre & Dumont, 2002). In animal studies, it was reported that krill Oil (rich in 3-containing PLs) had stronger effects with respect to fish Oil (rich in 3-containing triacylglycerols) in increasing the DHA level in rat brain (Di Marzo et al., 2010). Although 3 are predominantly linked in the position Sn-1,3 of triacylglycerols (TG) in seal Blubber Oil, they are esterified in the Sn-2 position of the TGs and PLs of eggs obtained after feeding laying hens with enriched diets. Moreover, more 3 fatty acids are incorporated in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) than in TGs (Pacetti et al., 2005). Apoptotic events and age-related diseases are strictly related to oxidized phospholipids. Much research remains to be done for the PL characterization by Liquid chromatography (LC) – tandem mass spectrometry (MS) aimed to understand their biological and

  • Characterization of Phospholipid Molecular Species by Means of HPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    Tandem Mass Spectrometry – Applications and Principles, 2011
    Co-Authors: Natale G Frega, Deborah Pacetti, Emmanuel Boselli

    Abstract:

    Phospholipids are the main constituents of the permeability barrier of cells and subcellular organelles. The phospholipid bilayer is the environment in which isolated proteins or dynamic nanoassemblies of sterols, sphingolipids, and proteins, called lipid rafts, act their vital functions, such as energy transduction, signal transduction, solute transport, DNA replication, protein targeting and trafficking, cell-cell recognition, secretion and many others (Lingwood et al., 2010). Christie et al. (2011) reported a detailed description of the general structure of phospholipids. According to Sud et al., 2007, phoshopholipids represent the category of lipids with the highest variety of structures (7775), followed in descending order, by polyketides (6713), fatty acyls (3942), sphingolipids (3936), glycerolipids (3044), sterol lipids (2196) and others. The positive effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on hepatic lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis, obesity-related disorders and cardiovascular disease is a consistent experimental evidence (Shirouchi et al., 2007). The daily intake of PL can vary from 2 to 8 g per day and represents 1-10% of total daily fat intake (Cohn et al., 2008). The main natural phospholipid is phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) which is completely absorbed in humans. Natural or synthetic PLs are extracted from eggs and soybean and used as drug delivery systems since decades (Papahadjopoulos, 1978). During brain development, one of the most efficient forms of supplying 3-fatty acids such as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are phospholipids (Bourre & Dumont, 2002). In animal studies, it was reported that krill Oil (rich in 3-containing PLs) had stronger effects with respect to fish Oil (rich in 3-containing triacylglycerols) in increasing the DHA level in rat brain (Di Marzo et al., 2010). Although 3 are predominantly linked in the position Sn-1,3 of triacylglycerols (TG) in seal Blubber Oil, they are esterified in the Sn-2 position of the TGs and PLs of eggs obtained after feeding laying hens with enriched diets. Moreover, more 3 fatty acids are incorporated in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) than in TGs (Pacetti et al., 2005). Apoptotic events and age-related diseases are strictly related to oxidized phospholipids. Much research remains to be done for the PL characterization by Liquid chromatography (LC) – tandem mass spectrometry (MS) aimed to understand their biological and 656 Tandem Mass Spectrometry – Applications and Principles physiopathological activity (Domingues et al., 2008). In the food industry, phospholipids are considered among the best emulsifying agents. Commercial preparations derived from soybean and corn Oils (commercial lecithins) are used extensively in manufactured foods such as bakery items, frostings, non-dairy creamers, confectionery products and ice creams. Staling and off-flavors are often related to the deterioration of the functional lipids in foods (Weihrauch et al., 1983). PLs extracts from eggs and/or fish products can play a pivotal role as an innovative food ingredient (Dumay et al., 2009; Commission Decision, 2000). Recently, a lipid extract rich of 3-containing PLs from krill (Euphausia superba) has been authorised by the EC as novel food/food ingredient (Commission Decision, 2009). Species, geographical origin, and production method of fish (i.e. wild/farmed) are the information which must be labelled in fishery and aquaculture products according to EU labelling regulations (Commission Regulation (EC) No 2065/2001). TGs are considered as markers for wild and farmed fish since their profile reflects the diet lipids (Standal et al., 2010), whereas the phospholipid profile is less affected by the diet and can be related to other variables, such as the species and stock (Joensen et al., 2000).

  • high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of phospholipid molecular species in eggs from hens fed diets enriched in seal Blubber Oil
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2005
    Co-Authors: Deborah Pacetti, Emmanuel Boselli, Howard W Hulan, Natale G Frega

    Abstract:

    Abstract The total lipid fraction of eggs from hens fed diets enriched in seal Blubber Oil (1.25–5.0% SBO) was directly analysed with normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled on-line with electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS–MS) for the identification of the molecular species of phospholipids (PLs). The species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were all detected as the [M − H]− ions. The phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (Sph) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) classes, were detected as formate adducts [M + HCOO]−. Tandem MS of PE and PI showed the loss of the carboxylate anions, and, for PI, also the loss of water and inositol. Product ion spectrum of PC, LPC and Sph contained only the [M − CH3]− ion fragment. Feeding different levels of SBO for 5 weeks resulted in a significant increase of PE, PC and PI molecular species carrying eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ω3, EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 ω3, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω3, DHA), but not Sph nor LPC. The highest increase of the ω3/ω6 ratio occurred for PE and PC. On the contrary, PI was less affected by the increase of SBO in the diet.