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Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus

The Experts below are selected from a list of 78 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Thomas C Mettenleiter – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the recently discovered Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus insights into its genetic heterogeneity and spatial distribution in europe and the population genetics of its primary host
    Advances in Virus Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Elisa Eggerbauer, Dirk Hoper, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Cecile Troupin, Karsten Passior, Florian Pfaff, Antonie Neubauerjuric, Stephanie Haberl, Christiane Bouchier, Herve Bourhy

    Abstract:

    Abstract In 2010, a novel Lyssavirus named Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) was isolated from a Natterer’s Bat (Myotis nattereri) in Germany. Two further viruses were isolated in the same country and in France in recent years, all from the same Bat species and all found in moribund or dead Bats. Here we report the description and the full-length genome sequence of five additional BBLV isolates from Germany (n = 4) and France (n = 1). Interestingly, all of them were isolated from the Natterer’s Bat, except one from Germany, which was found in a common Pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), a widespread and abundant Bat species in Europe. The latter represents the first case of transmission of BBLV to another Bat species. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two different lineages among this Lyssavirus species: lineages A and B. The spatial distribution of these two lineages remains puzzling, as both of them comprised isolates from France and Germany; although clustering of isolates was observed on a regional scale, especially in Germany. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene from positive Natterer’s Bat did not suggest a circulation of the respective BBLV sublineages in specific Natterer’s Bat subspecies, as all of them were shown to belong to the M. nattereri sensu stricto clade/subspecies and were closely related (German and French positive Bats). At the Bat host level, we demonstrated that the distribution of BBLV at the late stage of the disease seems large and massive, as viral RNA was detected in many different organs.

  • comparative studies on the genetic antigenic and pathogenic characteristics of Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus
    Journal of General Virology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Tobias Nolden, Dennis Hanke, Dirk Hoper, Ashley C Banyard, Stefan Finke, Anthony R Fooks, Daniel L Horton, Thomas C Mettenleiter

    Abstract:

    Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV), a novel Lyssavirus, was isolated from a Natterer’s Bat (Myotis nattererii), a chiropteran species with a widespread and abundant distribution across Europe. As a novel Lyssavirus, the risks of BBLV to animal and human health are unknown and as such characterization both in vitro and in vivo was required to assess pathogenicity and vaccine protection. Full genome sequence analysis and antigenic cartography demonstrated that the German BBLV isolates are most closely related to European Bat Lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and Khujand virus and can be characterized within phylogroup I. In vivo characterization demonstrated that BBLV was pathogenic in mice when inoculated peripherally causing clinical signs typical for rabies encephalitis, with higher pathogenicity observed in juvenile mice. A limited vaccination-challenge experiment in mice was conducted and suggested that current vaccines would afford some protection against BBLV although further studies are warranted to determine a serological cut-off for protection.

  • Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany – A Retrospective Study
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane Schatz, Conrad Martin Freuling, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Ernst Auer, Hooman Goharriz, Christine Harbusch, Nicholas Johnson, Ingrid Kaipf, Kristin Mühldorfer, Ralf-udo Mühle

    Abstract:

    In Germany, rabies in Bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new Lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of Bat rabies in insectivorous Bat species is limited, in addition to routine Bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead Bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of Lyssavirus infections in Bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 Bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule Bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated Bats, 1.17% tested positive for Lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine Bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius’ pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton’s Bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further Bat species are affected by Lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of Lyssaviruses and Bats as reservoir host species worldwide, Lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both Bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

Conrad Martin Freuling – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus isolation in a natterer s Bat poland
    Zoonoses and Public Health, 2018
    Co-Authors: M Smreczak, Anna Orlowska, Anna Marzec, P Trebas, Thomas Muller, Conrad Martin Freuling, Jan F żmudzinski

    Abstract:

    : In recent years, Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV), a member of the novel Lyssavirus genus Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus in the family Rhabdoviridae, has been detected in Germany (five cases) and France (two cases). Here, we report the isolation of BBLV in a Natterer’s Bat (Myotis nattereri) in Poland. The Bat brain tested positive for rabies using classical diagnostics tests (FAT and RTCIT) and then subsequently confirmed by molecular techniques. Viral RNA was found in all peripheral organs tested, and the highest viral loads were detected in brain, the salivary gland and bladder. Phylogenetic analysis performed on complete viral genome sequences revealed the closest homology to representatives of BBLV lineage B, isolated previously in southern Germany. This case provides further evidence that BBLV is widespread in Europe.

  • Cross-neutralization of antibodies induced by vaccination with Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine (PCECV) against different Lyssavirus species.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 2014
    Co-Authors: Claudius Malerczyk, Conrad Martin Freuling, Dieter Gniel, Alexandra Giesen, Thomas Selhorst, Thomas Muller

    Abstract:

    Background: Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. In endemic countries of Asia and Africa, where the majority of the estimated 60,000 human rabies deaths occur, it is mainly caused by the classical rabies virus (RABV) transmitted by dogs. Over the last decade new species within the genus Lyssavirus have been identified. Meanwhile 15 (proposed or classified) species exist, including Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABLV), European Bat Lyssavirus (EBLV-1 and -2), Duvenhage virus (DUVV), as well as Lagos Bat virus (LBV) and Mokola virus (MOKV) and recently identified novel species like Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV), Ikoma Bat Lyssavirus (IKOV) or Lleida Bat Lyssavirus (LLBV). The majority of these Lyssavirus species are found in Bat reservoirs and some have caused human infection and deaths. Previous work has demonstrated that Purified Chick Embryo Cell Rabies Vaccine (PCECV) not only induces immune responses against classical RABV, but also elicits cross-neutr…

  • Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany – A Retrospective Study
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2014
    Co-Authors: Juliane Schatz, Conrad Martin Freuling, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Ernst Auer, Hooman Goharriz, Christine Harbusch, Nicholas Johnson, Ingrid Kaipf, Kristin Mühldorfer, Ralf-udo Mühle

    Abstract:

    In Germany, rabies in Bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new Lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of Bat rabies in insectivorous Bat species is limited, in addition to routine Bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead Bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of Lyssavirus infections in Bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 Bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule Bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated Bats, 1.17% tested positive for Lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine Bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius’ pipistrelle Bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton’s Bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further Bat species are affected by Lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of Lyssaviruses and Bats as reservoir host species worldwide, Lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both Bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

Florence Cliquet – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Cross-Protection of Inactivated Rabies Vaccines for Veterinary Use against Bat Lyssaviruses Occurring in Europe.
    Viruses, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Florence Cliquet

    Abstract:

    Human rabies vaccines have been shown to induce partial protection against members of phylogroup I Bat Lyssaviruses. Here, we investigated the capacity of a widely used rabies inactivated vaccine (Rabisin, Boehringer-Ingelheim) for veterinary use to cross-protect mice experimentally infected with European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1b), European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), and Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) occurring in Europe. For each Lyssavirus, we investigated the efficacy of two different doses of vaccine against two viral doses administrated by either central or peripheral routes. In parallel, seroconversion following pre-exposure vaccination was investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that the three investigated Bat isolates were pathogenic, even at low dose, when inoculated by the central route but were not/less pathogenic when administrated peripherally. The Rabisin vaccine was capable of significantly cross-protecting mice inoculated intramuscularly with EBLV-1b and EBLV-2 and intracerebrally with BBLV. The level of rabies neutralizing antibodies induced by the Rabisin was quite high against the Bat Lyssaviruses, but with no significant differences between immunization with 1 and 5 IU/dose. The study emphasizes that the quality of rabies-inactivated vaccines for veterinary use is of utmost importance to optimize the cross-protection of pets against phylogroup I Bat Lyssaviruses occurring in Europe.

  • An inter-laboratory comparison to evaluate the technical performance of rabies diagnosis Lateral Flow Assays
    Journal of Virological Methods, 2019
    Co-Authors: Alexandre Servat, Emmanuelle Robardet, Florence Cliquet

    Abstract:

    Abstract As in previous years, the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for rabies organised in 2018 an Inter-laboratory trial (ILT) on rabies diagnosis. Contrarily to past years, the 2018 ILT did not aim to evaluate the performance of participating laboratories, but the technical performance of new rapid tests. Two lateral Flow Assays (LFA), namely the Anigen® and the CDIA™ Rabies Virus Antigen Rapid Test” (commercialized by Bionote and Creative Diagnostics Cie respectively), were evaluated together with the Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT). One panel of virus samples (including RABV as well as EBLV1a, EBLV-1b, and EBLV2 strains) was sent to participating laboratories to compare results obtained with these different techniques. The study revealed that the FAT provided a good agreement toward expected results for both negative/positive samples (99.1%). The Anigen® test produced similar results to the FAT, with only one false negative result (0.5%) reported by all participants and a concordance of 100% for all but one sample demonstrating a good inter-laboratory reproducibility of the Anigen® Batch. The CDIA™ test produced reproducible results for Rabies Virus (RABV) samples only. However, it hardly detected the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the European Bat Lyssaviruses types 1b and 2 (EBLV-1b and EBLV-2) in most laboratories resulting in a moderate inter-laboratory concordance (58.4%–82.7%) for these Lyssaviruses. The two LFAs provided reliable and reproducible results on all RABV samples (100%) but lead to heterogeneous performances with other Lyssaviruses leading to different levels of diagnostic/analytical sensitivity, specificity. The study confirmed that LFAs should be used with caution and that their validation are of upmost importance before any use in laboratories.

  • Molecular and serological survey of Lyssaviruses in Croatian Bat populations.
    BMC Veterinary Research, 2018
    Co-Authors: Ivana Šimić, Evelyne Picard-meyer, Florence Cliquet, Ivana Lojkić, Nina Krešić, Marine Wasniewski, Anđela Ćukušić, Vida Zrnčić, Tomislav Bedeković

    Abstract:

    Rabies is the only known zoonotic disease of Bat origin in Europe. The disease is caused by species belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Five Lyssavirus species, i.e., European Bat Lyssavirus (EBLV)-1, EBLV-2, Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus, Lleida Bat Lyssavirus, and West Caucasian Bat virus, have been identified in European Bats. More recently, a proposed sixth species, Kotalahti Bat Lyssavirus, was detected. Thus, in this study, active surveillance was initiated in order to obtain insights into the prevalence of Lyssaviruses in Croatian Bat populations and to improve our understanding of the public health threat of infected Bats. In total, 455 Bats were caught throughout Continental and Mediterranean Croatia. Antibodies were found in 20 of 350 Bats (5.71%, 95% confidence interval 3.73–8.66). The majority of seropositive Bats were found in Trbusnjak cave (Continental Croatia, Eastern part), and most seropositive Bats belonged to Myotis myotis (13/20). All oropharyngeal swabs were negative for the presence of Lyssavirus. The presence of Lyssaviruses in Bat populations was confirmed for the first time in Croatia and Southeastern Europe. The results of this study suggest the need for further comprehensive analyses of Lyssaviruses in Bats in this part of Europe.