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Boring Insects

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Teja Tscharntke – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • grassland management for stem Boring Insects abandoning small patches is better than reducing overall intensity
    Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 2013
    Co-Authors: Christoph Rothenwohrer, Christoph Scherber, Teja Tscharntke

    Abstract:

    Abstract Grasses are a dominant component of meadows and pastures, harBoring an often overlooked diversity of non-pest stem-Boring Insects that feed and develop exclusively enclosed by plant tissue inside grass shoots. Surprisingly, the effects of land-use management on these highly specialized communities have rarely been studied. Here, the applicability of short-term management reduction as a conservational tool, increasing stem-borer colonization success, was examined. On 41 grasslands in Germany a temporal gradient of set-aside treatments was established by experimentally excluding subplots from management, or by a priori selection of already abandoned grassland patches. Stem-borer abundances and attack heights on resulting managed, 1-season unmanaged and ≥2-seasons abandoned treatments were compared. Grassland management had a negative effect on stem-borer colonization success and spatial niche differentiation. Reducing management over a 1-season period did not enhance abundances. Two out of three species responded positively only to an abandoning treatment lasting ≥2-seasons, which was also reflected by the decreasing spatial overlap in this treatment. Even though grass shoots in unmanaged areas were on average 14.9 cm taller than in managed areas, stem-borer abundances did not differ between the latter treatments. Hence, preserving essential larval development and hibernation habitats in future rotational set-aside schemes requires a management exclusion period of at least two growing seasons. From these grassy strips, e.g. located at meadow edges, highly specialized stem-borers can re-colonize sward islets on surrounding intensively managed grasslands, despite of ever changing land-use practices and environmental conditions.

  • stem Boring Insects of fragmented calamagrostis habitats herbivore parasitoid community structure and the unpredictability of grass shoot abundance
    Ecological Entomology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Mark Dubbert, Teja Tscharntke, Stefan Vidal

    Abstract:

    1. Communities of stem-Boring Insects attacking the grass Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth were analysed from twenty-five pure stands of C. epigeios differing in area and isolation. Insect communities comprised nine phytophagous and eighteen entomophagous species. Most abundant herbivores (attacking > 1% of all shoots) were Tetramesa eximia (Giraud) (Hym. Eurytomidae), Eurytoma sp. (Hym. Eurytomidae), Lasioptera calamagrostidis (Rubs.) (Dipt. Cecidomyiidae), and Eriopeltis sp. (Hom. Pseudococcidae). About 28% of the twenty-seven species were monophagous, 61% oligophagous (restricted to Poaceae), and 11% polyphagous. Although herbivores generally attacked thick shoots, species-specific differences in the attacked mean diameter were found. 2. The main purpose of this study was to analyse the relative effects of area, isolation and unpredictability of available food resources on the abundance of herbivores, parasitoids and resulting tritrophic effects. Variability of shoot abundance varied greatly between years, and even more between habitats within the same year. On average, shoot density per habitat increased or decreased 2.4-fold between succeeding years. 3. Variability of grass shoot abundance was not related to habitat characteristics such as area, isolation, biomass, shoot density, changes in area or shoot density between years, or shoot features like internode number or diameter, but was negatively influenced by shading of trees. Similarly, habitat area or isolation did not correlate with other habitat features. 4. Grass shoot abundance was the most important predictor of species abundance and attack rate of herbivores. In contrast to expectations, area and isolation of habitats did not explain differences in species richness, and only influenced abundance of three species. In addition, even the experimental removal of all grass shoots (and thereby, of all stem-Boring Insects) from five habitats in winter did not negatively influence colonization the following year. These results suggest a surprisingly high mobility of this rather specialized community of stem-Boring Insects that appeared to superimpose on area and isolation effects. Unpredictability of grass shoot abundance was presumably the main selection pressure for the obviously high dispersal abilities of the Calamagrostis Insects. 5. Per cent parasitism was mainly influenced by the percentage of attacked shoots. Parasitism of T. eximia by its major parasitoid also correlated with habitat connectivity, emphasizing the hypothesis that a continuum of habitats should be particularly favourable for the third trophic level.

Ilka C Feller – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the role of herbivory by wood Boring Insects in mangrove ecosystems in belize
    Oikos, 2002
    Co-Authors: Ilka C Feller

    Abstract:

    The roles wood-Boring Insects play in modifying mangrove ecosystems were examined on small, offshore mangrove islands in Belize. Several species of xylem- and phloem-feeding woodborers consume the wood of living mangrove trees. By girdling, pruning, and hollowing, woodborers killed over 50% of the Rhizophora mangle canopy in experimental plots arrayed across a tidal-elevation gradient. In contrast, leaf-feeding herbivores removed less than 6% of the canopy. In the plots, stem girdlers killed over three branches per tree. The patterns of herbivory by three functional feeding groups were heterogeneous and did not vary consistently with tidal elevation. Because R. mangle lacks viable axillary buds or the ability to produce epicormic shoots to replace pruned branches, the canopy architecture was significantly modified by this damage. The branches that were pruned by stem girdlers created numerous small holes or gaps in the mangrove canopy. Shoot growth and flowering increased in R. mangle trees with 50% of their branches experimentally girdled. Because branches and twigs attacked by woodborers lost their leaves prematurely as greenfall, the quantity and quality of leaf litter were altered when a leaf-bearing branch was girdled or hollowed. These changes suggest that wood-Boring Insects also significantly affect internal and external nutrient cycling processes in mangrove ecosystems.

  • primary herbivory by wood Boring Insects along an architectural gradient of rhizophora mangle
    Biotropica, 1997
    Co-Authors: Ilka C Feller, Wayne N Mathis

    Abstract:

    We investigated the distribution of primary xylovores in Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) first-order branches, i.e., “twigs”, along an architectural gradient on Belizean mangrove cays. Greater structural diversity in R. mangle architecture, xylovore availability, occurrence of natural enemies, and habitat do not result in variable xylovore species richness. Despite large differences in architectural complexity, tall, fringe, dwarf, and sapling trees host the same set of primary twig borers. However, tall trees support greater diversity and abundance of twig inquilines than other tree forms. Primary twig borers have a key role in structuring these mangrove communities because their galleries and pupal chambers provide habitats for numerous species of secondary xylovores and inquilines. We also measured the amount of leaf area removed from R. mangle’s canopy by wood- and leaf-feeding herbivores. Vigorously growing tall and sapling trees sustain greater losses because of twig borers than dwarf trees. However, xylovory in fringe trees was not different from any of the other categories. Cumulative herbivory was greatest in the tall trees. In most cases, leaf-area loss as an indirect or collateral result of primary xylovory equaled or exceeded leaf-area loss as a direct result of folivory. Kty words: diversity; herbivory; inquilines; mangrove; plant architecture; primary xylovory; Rhizophora mangle; species richness; twig-feeding guild; wood-Boring Insects.

François Lieutier – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis – Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: François Lieutier, Andrea Battisti, Jean-claude Grégoire, H.f. Evans

    Abstract:

    The BAWBILT bases in Europe.- The Bawbilt Context in Europe.- The Directory of European Experts.- The Bawbilt Database.- Damage and Control of Bawbilt Organisms an Overview.- Bark Beetles.- Taxonomy and Systematics of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles.- Genetic Tools in Scolytid Research.- General Biology of Bark Beetles.- Chemical Ecology of Bark Beetles in a Complex Olfactory Landscape.- Host Resistance to Bark Beetles and Its Variations.- Fungal Associates of European Bark Beetles With Special Emphasis on the Ophiostomatoid Fungi.- Research on Parasitoids and Predators of Scolytidae – A Review.- Pathogens in Bark Beetles.- Bark Weevils.- Taxonomy and Systematics of Bark Weevils.- General Biology and Life Cycles of Bark Weevils.- Semiochemicals in the Life of Bark Feeding Weevils.- Hylobius Abietis – Host Utilisation and Resistance.- Fungi Associated With Hylobius Abietis and Other Weevils.- Parasitoids, Predators, Nematodes and Pathogens Associated with Bark Weevil Pests.- Damage, Control and Management of Weevil Pests, Especially Hylobius Abietis.- Buprestids and Longhorns.- Biology, Ecology and Economic Importance of Buprestidae and Cerambycidae.- Natural Enemies of Cerambycidae and Buprestidae Infesting Living Trees.- “Non-Coleopteran” Bawbilt organisms.- “Non-Coleopteran Insects“.- Research needs and priorities for Europe.- General Conclusions and Research Priorities for Bawbilt Organisms in Europe.

  • bark and wood Boring Insects involved in oak declines in europe current knowledge and future prospects in a context of climate change
    Forest Ecology and Management, 2014
    Co-Authors: Aurelien Salle, L M Nageleisen, François Lieutier

    Abstract:

    Oak declines are multifactorial processes in which bark and wood Boring (BWB) beetles can act as major inciting factors, killing the weakened trees. Nonetheless, the current knowledge on the biology, ecology of these species is scattered and no efficient management strategies are currently available. Based on the existing literature and field observations from the French forest health service, we firstly identified the prominent BWB species implicated in oak declines in Europe. Secondly we performed a state of the art on the biology and ecology of these species, with a particular reference to the interactions with their host trees. Finally considerations were made on how climate change could affect these interactions. Six species, namely Agrilus biguttatus, Coraebus florentinus, Coraebus undatus, Cerambyx cerdo, Platypus cylindrus and Scolytus intricatus are frequently implicated in oak declines in Europe. The interactions with their hosts regarding selection and resistance are generally poorly known. Likewise, these beetles are associated with a diverse microbial community, which composition and implication in the biology of Insects and decline processes is unclear in most cases. Climate change will probably increase the frequency and distribution of oak declines in Europe. It will also likely modify the interactions between oaks and these beetles by promoting contributing factors of decline, modifying directly and indirectly host resistance, phenology and attractiveness, and beetles development, distribution and interaction with microorganisms. Evidences point out that the increase in temperature has already favored the distribution and development of C. florentinus and could enhance the development of other species. Potential research prospects are proposed, aiming at acquiring missing basic knowledge and improving the currently limited management strategies.

  • bark and wood Boring Insects in living trees in europe a synthesis
    (2004) doi:10.1007 978-1-4020-2241-8, 2004
    Co-Authors: François Lieutier, Andrea Battisti, Jean-claude Grégoire, H.f. Evans

    Abstract:

    The BAWBILT bases in Europe.- The Bawbilt Context in Europe.- The Directory of European Experts.- The Bawbilt Database.- Damage and Control of Bawbilt Organisms an Overview.- Bark Beetles.- Taxonomy and Systematics of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles.- Genetic Tools in Scolytid Research.- General Biology of Bark Beetles.- Chemical Ecology of Bark Beetles in a Complex Olfactory Landscape.- Host Resistance to Bark Beetles and Its Variations.- Fungal Associates of European Bark Beetles With Special Emphasis on the Ophiostomatoid Fungi.- Research on Parasitoids and Predators of Scolytidae – A Review.- Pathogens in Bark Beetles.- Bark Weevils.- Taxonomy and Systematics of Bark Weevils.- General Biology and Life Cycles of Bark Weevils.- Semiochemicals in the Life of Bark Feeding Weevils.- Hylobius Abietis – Host Utilisation and Resistance.- Fungi Associated With Hylobius Abietis and Other Weevils.- Parasitoids, Predators, Nematodes and Pathogens Associated with Bark Weevil Pests.- Damage, Control and Management of Weevil Pests, Especially Hylobius Abietis.- Buprestids and Longhorns.- Biology, Ecology and Economic Importance of Buprestidae and Cerambycidae.- Natural Enemies of Cerambycidae and Buprestidae Infesting Living Trees.- “Non-Coleopteran” Bawbilt organisms.- “Non-Coleopteran Insects“.- Research needs and priorities for Europe.- General Conclusions and Research Priorities for Bawbilt Organisms in Europe.