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4-Methylthioamphetamine

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Helena Carmo – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • An insight into the hepatocellular death induced by amphetamines, individually and in combination: the involvement of necrosis and apoptosis
    Archives of Toxicology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Diana Dias Da Silva, Helena Carmo, Adam Lynch, Elisabete Silva

    Abstract:

    The liver is a vulnerable target for amphetamine toxicity, but the mechanisms involved in the drug’s hepatotoxicity remain poorly understood. The purpose of the current research was to characterize the mode of death elicited by four amphetamines and to evaluate whether their combination triggered similar mechanisms in immortalized human HepG2 cells. The obtained data revealed a time- and temperature-dependent mortality of HepG2 cells exposed to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy ; 1.3 mM), methamphetamine (3 mM), 4-Methylthioamphetamine (0.5 mM) and d -amphetamine (1.7 mM), alone or combined (1.6 mM mixture). At physiological temperature (37 °C), 24-h exposures caused HepG2 death preferentially by apoptosis, while a rise to 40.5 °C favoured necrosis. ATP levels remained unaltered when the drugs where tested at normothermia, but incubation at 40.5 °C provoked marked ATP depletion for all treatments. Further investigations on the apoptotic mechanisms triggered by the drugs (alone or combined) showed a decline in BCL – 2 and BCL -_ XL mRNA levels, with concurrent upregulation of BAX , BIM , PUMA and BID genes. Elevation of Bax, cleaved Bid, Puma, Bak and Bim protein levels was also seen. To the best of our knowledge, Puma, Bim and Bak have never been linked with the toxicity induced by amphetamines. Time-dependent caspase-3/-7 activation, but not mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψ_m) disruption, also mediated amphetamine-induced apoptosis. The cell dismantling was confirmed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase proteolysis. Overall, for all evaluated parameters, no relevant differences were detected between individual amphetamines and the mixture (all tested at equieffective cytotoxic concentrations), suggesting that the mode of action of the amphetamines in combination does not deviate from the mode of action of the drugs individually, when eliciting HepG2 cell death.

  • Combination effects of amphetamines under hyperthermia – the role played by oxidative stress.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Diana Silva, Elisabete Silva, Helena Carmo

    Abstract:

    Rise in body temperature is a life-threatening consequence of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) abuse. We evaluated the impact of hyperthermia on the cytotoxicity of combinations of MDMA and three other amphetamines, often co-ingested. For this, Hep G2 cells were exposed to MDMA, d-amphetamine, methamphetamine and 4-Methylthioamphetamine, individually or combined, at 40.5 °C. The results were compared with normothermia data (37.0 °C). Mixture additivity expectations were calculated by independent action and concentration addition (CA) models. To delineate the mechanism(s) underlying the elicited effects, a range of stress endpoints was evaluated, including quantification of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), lipid peroxidation, reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) changes. Our data show that, in hyperthermia, amphetamines acted additively and mixture effects were accurately predicted by CA. At 40.5 °C, even slight increases in the concentrations of each drug/mixture promoted significant rises in cytotoxicity, which quickly shifted from roughly undetectable to maximal mortality. Additionally, the increase of RNS/ROS production, decrease of GSH, ATP depletion and mitochondrial impairment were exacerbated under hyperthermia. Importantly, when equieffective cytotoxic concentrations of the mixture and individual amphetamines were compared for all tested stress endpoints, mixture effects did not deviate from those elicited by individual treatments, suggesting that these amphetamines have a similar mode of action, which is not altered in combination. Concluding, our data indicate that amphetamine mixtures produce deleterious effects, even when individual drugs are combined at negligible concentrations. These effects are strongly exacerbated in hyperthermia, emphasizing the potential increased risks of ecstasy intake, especially when hyperthermia occurs concurrently with polydrug abuse. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • The risky cocktail: what combination effects can we expect between ecstasy and other amphetamines?
    Archives of Toxicology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Diana Dias Da Silva, Helena Carmo, Elisabete Silva

    Abstract:

    The recreational and illicit use of amphetaminic designer compounds, specially 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; Ecstasy ), is of concern worldwide. Such psychostimulating drugs are frequently present as complex mixtures in ‘rave’ pills, making concomitant polysubstance use a common trend. However, the understanding of possible combination effects with these substances is still scarce. The present study was aimed at predicting the cytotoxic effects of mixtures of four amphetaminic derivatives: MDMA, methamphetamine, 4-Methylthioamphetamine and d-amphetamine in a human hepatoma cell line. Concentration–response curves for all single-mixture components were recorded by the MTT assay. Data obtained for individual agents were then used to compute the additivity expectations for mixtures of definite composition, using the pharmacological models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action . By comparing the predicted calculations with the experimentally observed effects, we concluded that CA accurately predicts the combination of amphetamines, which act together to generate additive effects over a large range of concentrations. Notably, we observed substantial mixture effects even when each drug was present at low concentrations, which individually produced unnoticeable effects. Nonetheless, for all tested mixtures, a small deviation from additivity was observed towards higher concentrations, particularly at high effect levels. A possible metabolic interaction, which could explain such deviation, was investigated, and it was observed that at higher mixture concentrations increased MDMA metabolism could be contributing to divergences from additivity. In conclusion, the present work clearly demonstrates that potentially harmful interactions among amphetaminic drugs are expected when these drugs are taken concomitantly.

Hans H. Maurer – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Screening for and validated quantification of amphetamines and of amphetamine- and piperazine-derived designer drugs in human blood plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
    Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 2020
    Co-Authors: Frank T. Peters, Roland F. Staack, Simone Schaefer, Thomas Kraemer, Hans H. Maurer

    Abstract:

    The classical stimulants amphetamine, methamphetamine, ethylamphetamine and the amphetamine-derived designer drugs MDA, MDMA (‘ecstasy’), MDEA, BDB and MBDB have been widely abused for a relatively long time. In recent years, a number of newer designer drugs have entered the illicit drug market. 4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA), p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) and p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) are also derived from amphetamine. Other designer drugs are derived from piperazine, such as benzylpiperazine (BZP), methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (MDBP), trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and p-methoxyphenylpiperazine (MeOPP). A number of severe or even fatal intoxications involving these newer substances, especially PMA, have been reported. This paper describes a method for screening for and simultaneous quantification of the above-mentioned compounds and the metabolites p-hydroxyamphetamine and p-hydroxymethamphetamine (pholedrine) in human blood plasma. The analytes were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode after mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (HCX) and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines. It was linear from 5 to 1000 µg l−1 for all analytes. Data for accuracy and precision were within required limits with the exception of those for MDBP. The limit of quantification was 5 µg l−1 for all analytes. The applicability of the assay was proven by analysis of authentic plasma samples and of a certified reference sample. This procedure should also be suitable for confirmation of immunoassay results positive for amphetamines and/or designer drugs of the ecstasy type. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the designer drug 4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Journal of Chromatography B, 2005
    Co-Authors: Andreas H. Ewald, Frank T. Peters, Magdalene Weise, Hans H. Maurer

    Abstract:

    Abstract 4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) is a scheduled designer drug that has appeared on the illicit drug market and led to several non-fatal or even fatal poisonings. Only few data are available on its metabolism. The first aim of this study was to identify the 4-MTA metabolites in human urine and then to study whether the authors’ STA procedure is suitable for screening for and identification of 4-MTA and/or its metabolites in urine. After enzymatic cleavage of conjugates, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and acetylation the following metabolites could be identified by full-scan gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS): deamino-oxo 4-MTA, deamino-hydroxy 4-MTA, ring hydroxy and β-hydroxy 4-MTA. 4-MTA sulfoxide could be identified as possible artifact. In urine samples after enzymatic hydrolysis, acidic extraction, and methylation, 4-methylthiobenzoic acid could be identified. The authors’ systematical toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and acetylation allowed detection of 4-MTA as target analyte plus all the above-mentioned metabolites with the exception of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid. The extraction efficiency of 4-MTA was approximately 70% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 30 ng/ml ( S / N 3).

  • Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the designer drug 4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Journal of chromatography. B Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences, 2005
    Co-Authors: Andreas H. Ewald, Frank T. Peters, Magdalene Weise, Hans H. Maurer

    Abstract:

    4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) is a scheduled designer drug that has appeared on the illicit drug market and led to several non-fatal or even fatal poisonings. Only few data are available on its metabolism. The first aim of this study was to identify the 4-MTA metabolites in human urine and then to study whether the authors’ STA procedure is suitable for screening for and identification of 4-MTA and/or its metabolites in urine. After enzymatic cleavage of conjugates, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and acetylation the following metabolites could be identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): deamino-oxo 4-MTA, deamino-hydroxy 4-MTA, ring hydroxy and beta-hydroxy 4-MTA. 4-MTA sulfoxide could be identified as possible artifact. In urine samples after enzymatic hydrolysis, acidic extraction, and methylation, 4-methylthiobenzoic acid could be identified. The authors’ systematical toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and acetylation allowed detection of 4-MTA as target analyte plus all the above-mentioned metabolites with the exception of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid. The extraction efficiency of 4-MTA was approximately 70% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 30 ng/ml (S/N 3).

J C Coumbaros – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Synthesis of 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 4-arylpyrimidines: route specific markers for the Leuckardt preparation of amphetamine, 4-methoxyamphetamine, and 4-Methylthioamphetamine
    Forensic Science International, 2020
    Co-Authors: K P Kirkbride, A D Ward, N F Jenkins, G Klass, J C Coumbaros

    Abstract:

    General synthetic routes to 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 5-arylpyrimidines are described. 4-Benzylpyrimidine, 4methyl-5-phenylpyrimidine, 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine, and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been positively identified as route-specific by-products in the Leuckardt preparations of amphetamine and 4-methoxyamphetamine. Using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been identified in illicit tablets containing 4-methoxyamphetamine. This is an indication that illicit laboratories use the Leuckardt method for the preparation of 4-methoxyamphetamine. Flatliner tablets containing 4-Methylthioamphetamine have been screened for the presence of 4-(4-methylthiobenzyl)pyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-(4-methylthiophenyl)pyrimidine using both headspace and aqueous phase SPME. As these pyrimidines were not detected it would appear likely that illicit laboratories are not using the Leuckardt method for the preparation of 4-Methylthioamphetamine. # 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Synthesis of 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 4-arylpyrimidines: route specific markers for the Leuckardt preparation of amphetamine, 4-methoxyamphetamine, and 4-Methylthioamphetamine.
    Forensic science international, 2001
    Co-Authors: K P Kirkbride, A D Ward, N F Jenkins, G Klass, J C Coumbaros

    Abstract:

    General synthetic routes to 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 5-arylpyrimidines are described. 4-Benzylpyrimidine, 4-methyl-5-phenylpyrimidine, 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine, and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been positively identified as route-specific by-products in the Leuckardt preparations of amphetamine and 4-methoxyamphetamine. Using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been identified in illicit tablets containing 4-methoxyamphetamine. This is an indication that illicit laboratories use the Leuckardt method for the preparation of 4-methoxyamphetamine. Flatliner tablets containing 4-Methylthioamphetamine have been screened for the presence of 4-(4-methylthiobenzyl)pyrimidine and 4-methyl-5-(4-methylthiophenyl)pyrimidine using both headspace and aqueous phase SPME. As these pyrimidines were not detected it would appear likely that illicit laboratories are not using the Leuckardt method for the preparation of 4-Methylthioamphetamine.