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Edward Eisenstein – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Ecological and Chemotypic Analysis for Improved Growth and Management of Naturally Occurring Black Cohosh ( Actaea racemosa L.) Populations in Western Maryland
    American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2015
    Co-Authors: Amanda Vickers, David Puthoff, Sunshine L. Brosi, James Howell, Bhavneet Kaur, Edward Eisenstein
    Abstract:

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) is a perennial herb native to deciduous woodlands in eastern North America with an extensive history of traditional use, most commonly for rheumatoid arthritis and female reproductive issues. Modern clinical research has maintained this herb’s relevance into the 21st century with a majority of authentic black cohosh raw material still harvested from naturally occurring populations in Appalachian woodlands for use in botanical supplements. Increased use and interest in black cohosh have led to increased wild harvesting, reports of adulteration, and stress on this important natural resource. In an effort to study this significant medicinal plant as part of an ecosystem, and to understand factors that would contribute to the more effective growth and maintenance of black cohosh, key chemical, physiological, and ecological aspects of two occurring populations in western Maryland were surveyed. Rhizomes were harvested from six populations of naturally occurring black cohosh in two state forests located in the Allegheny Plateau and Ridge and Valley physiogeographic provinces of Maryland. The concentrations of five medicinal compounds found in black cohosh extracts, actein, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, cafeic acid, ferulicacid, and N-methylserotonin, were compared with plant reproductive status as well as accompanying overstory and under story species, soil moisture, and soil pH at each site. Compound levels showed a complex dependence on physiography but were independent of reproductive state. The findings provide clues to guide efforts at effective growth and management of wild populations of black cohosh and other threatened medicinal plants.

  • Systems approaches to unraveling plant metabolism: identifying biosynthetic genes of secondary metabolic pathways.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton N.J.), 2013
    Co-Authors: Martin J. Spiering, Bhavneet Kaur, James F. Parsons, Edward Eisenstein
    Abstract:

    The diversity of useful compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism has stimulated broad systems biology approaches to identify the genes involved in their biosynthesis. Systems biology studies in non-model plants pose interesting but addressable challenges, and have been greatly facilitated by the ability to grow and maintain plants, develop laboratory culture systems, and profile key metabolites in order to identify critical genes involved their biosynthesis. In this chapter we describe a suite of approaches that have been useful in Actaea racemosa (L.; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Nutt., black coshosh), a non-model medicinal plant with no genome sequence and little horticultural information available, that have led to the development of initial gene-metabolite relationships for the production of several bioactive metabolites in this multicomponent botanical therapeutic, and that can be readily applied to a wide variety of under-characterized medicinal plants.

  • Efficient, Season-Independent Seed Germination in Black Cohosh ( Actaea racemosa L.)
    American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2013
    Co-Authors: Bhavneet Kaur, Joe-ann Mccoy, Edward Eisenstein
    Abstract:

    Seed germination in black cohosh was systematically examined in eighteen populations including 15 USDA accessions with an effective protocol for the consistent, season independent germination of this valuable alternative specialty crop. Two in vitro approaches were investigated for breaking the complex double dormancy of black cohosh seeds for yearround germination of plants for increased cultivation and laboratory studies. The first approach was a two-step alternating temperature stratification in which surface sterilized seeds were incubated in darkness at 25?C for two weeks followed by incubation at alternating temperatures of 20?C and 8?C for 12-hour periods with a 16-hour photoperiod for 12 months. The second was a three-step-approach that involved initial stratification of seeds in darkness at 25?C for two weeks, followed by incubation at 4?C in darkness for 3 -4 months and then cultivation at 25?C with a 16-hour photoperiod to generate seedlings. Although both approaches broke double dormancy for black cohosh seed germination, the three-step-stratification technique yielded higher percentage seed germgermination in less time when compared to the two-step scheme, including for seeds stored over two years. Additional factors of critical importance for efficient germination included the selection of healthy and viable seeds, as well as thorough but non-excessive surface sterilization to control bacterial and fungal contamination. The in vitro approach for black cohosh germination allowed year-round cultivation and culture of a number of different genotypic accessions to enable laboratory based studies on cell culture and transformation approaches to aid in deciphering gene-metabolite relationships in this important medicinal plant.

Martin J. Spiering – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Systems approaches to unraveling plant metabolism: identifying biosynthetic genes of secondary metabolic pathways.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton N.J.), 2013
    Co-Authors: Martin J. Spiering, Bhavneet Kaur, James F. Parsons, Edward Eisenstein
    Abstract:

    The diversity of useful compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism has stimulated broad systems biology approaches to identify the genes involved in their biosynthesis. Systems biology studies in non-model plants pose interesting but addressable challenges, and have been greatly facilitated by the ability to grow and maintain plants, develop laboratory culture systems, and profile key metabolites in order to identify critical genes involved their biosynthesis. In this chapter we describe a suite of approaches that have been useful in Actaea racemosa (L.; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Nutt., black coshosh), a non-model medicinal plant with no genome sequence and little horticultural information available, that have led to the development of initial gene-metabolite relationships for the production of several bioactive metabolites in this multicomponent botanical therapeutic, and that can be readily applied to a wide variety of under-characterized medicinal plants.

  • Gene identification in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.): expressed sequence tag profiling and genetic screening yields candidate genes for production of bioactive secondary metabolites
    Plant Cell Reports, 2011
    Co-Authors: Martin J. Spiering, Lori A. Urban, Donald L. Nuss, Vivek Gopalan, Arlin Stoltzfus, Edward Eisenstein
    Abstract:

    Black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa , Nutt., Ranunculaceae) is a popular herb used for relieving menopausal discomforts. A variety of secondary metabolites, including triterpenoids, phenolic dimers, and serotonin derivatives have been associated with its biological activity, but the genes and metabolic pathways as well as the tissue distribution of their production in this plant are unknown. A gene discovery effort was initiated in A. racemosa by partial sequencing of cDNA libraries constructed from young leaf, rhizome, and root tissues. In total, 2,066 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 1,590 unique genes (unigenes). Most of the unigenes were predicted to encode primary metabolism genes, but about 70 were identified as putative secondary metabolism genes. Several of these candidates were analyzed further and full-length cDNA and genomic sequences for a putative 2,3 oxidosqualene cyclase ( CAS1 ) and two BAHD-type acyltransferases ( ACT1 and HCT1 ) were obtained. Homology-based PCR screening for the central gene in plant serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ), identified two TDC -related sequences in A. racemosa . CAS1 , ACT1 , and HCT1 were expressed in most plant tissues, whereas expression of TDC genes was detected only sporadically in immature flower heads and some very young leaf tissues. The cDNA libraries described and assorted genes identified provide initial insight into gene content and diversity in black cohosh, and provide tools and resources for detailed investigations of secondary metabolite genes and enzymes in this important medicinal plant.

  • Gene identification in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.): expressed sequence tag profiling and genetic screening yields candidate genes for production of bioactive secondary metabolites
    Plant Cell Reports, 2011
    Co-Authors: Martin J. Spiering, Lori A. Urban, Donald L. Nuss, Vivek Gopalan, Arlin Stoltzfus, Edward Eisenstein
    Abstract:

    Black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa , Nutt., Ranunculaceae) is a popular herb used for relieving menopausal discomforts. A variety of secondary metabolites, including triterpenoids, phenolic dimers, and serotonin derivatives have been associated with its biological activity, but the genes and metabolic pathways as well as the tissue distribution of their production in this plant are unknown. A gene discovery effort was initiated in A. racemosa by partial sequencing of cDNA libraries constructed from young leaf, rhizome, and root tissues. In total, 2,066 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 1,590 unique genes (unigenes). Most of the unigenes were predicted to encode primary metabolism genes, but about 70 were identified as putative secondary metabolism genes. Several of these candidates were analyzed further and full-length cDNA and genomic sequences for a putative 2,3 oxidosqualene cyclase ( CAS1 ) and two BAHD-type acyltransferases ( ACT1 and HCT1 ) were obtained. Homology-based PCR screening for the central gene in plant serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan decarboxylase ( TDC ), identified two TDC -related sequences in A. racemosa . CAS1 , ACT1 , and HCT1 were expressed in most plant tissues, whereas expression of TDC genes was detected only sporadically in immature flower heads and some very young leaf tissues. The cDNA libraries described and assorted genes identified provide initial insight into gene content and diversity in black cohosh, and provide tools and resources for detailed investigations of secondary metabolite genes and enzymes in this important medicinal plant.

Pei Chen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) dietary supplements based on chemometric evaluation of hydroxycinnamic acid esters and hydroxycinnamic acid amides
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ping Geng, Jianghao Sun, Pei Chen, Joe-ann H. Mccoy, James M. Harnly
    Abstract:

    Ester and amide derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids are found in black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa ) and other Actaea plants. These two compound groups were evaluated for authentication of black cohosh dietary supplements. The hydroxycinnamic acid esters (HCAE) were profiled by ultra-performance liquid chrochromatography-photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA). The hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) were acquired simultaneously by mass spectrometrymultiple reaction monitoring (UPLC-MRM) mode. In contrast with the traditional HCAE method using 8 compounds, profiles of HCAA using only 4 feruloyl dopamine– O -hexosides was more convenient for peak by peak comparison. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to both HCAE and HCAA datasets. Authenticated plant samples of five Actaea species were randomly divided into training and test sets to build and validate the two PLS-DA models. Both models provided reasonable estimates for the classification of A. racemosa and other Actaea plant samples. However, HCAA model performs better in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Assessment of supplement samples provided quite different results for the solid and liquid dietary supplement samples, indicating the dosage form could affect the composition of marker compounds. Graphical abstract

  • Feruloyl dopamine-O-hexosides are efficient marker compounds as orthogonal validation for authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa)—an UHPLC-HRAM-MS chemometrics study
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2017
    Co-Authors: Ping Geng, James M. Harnly, Jianghao Sun, Mengliang Zhang, Pei Chen
    Abstract:

    Due to the complexity and variation of the chemical constituents in authentic black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa ) and its potential adulterant species, an accurate and feasible method for black cohosh authentication is not easy. A high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approach was employed to discover new marker compounds. Seven hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for differentiation of black cohosh from related species, including two Asian species ( A. foetida , A. dahurica ) and two American species ( A. pachypoda , A. podocarpa ). These markers were putatively identified by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation behavior with those of their authentic aglycone compounds and phytochemistry reports. Two isomers of feruloyl methyldopamine 4- O -hexoside ([M + H]^+ 506) and one feruloyl tyramine 4- O -hexoside ([M + H]^+ 476) contributed significantly to the separation of Asian species in principle component analysis (PCA) score plot. The efficacy of the models built on four reasonable combinations of these markers in differentiating black cohosh and its adulterants were evaluated and validated by partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two models based on these reduced dataset achieved 100% accuracy based on the current sample collection, including the model that used only three feruloyl dopamine– O -hexoside isomers ([M + H]^+ 492) and one feruloyl dopamine– O -dihexoside ([M + H-hexosyl]^+ at m / z 492). Graphical abstract Hydroxycinnamic acid amide glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for authentication of black cohosh

  • Feruloyl dopamine-O-hexosides are efficient marker compounds as orthogonal validation for authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa)-an UHPLC-HRAM-MS chemometrics study
    Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 2017
    Co-Authors: Ping Geng, James M. Harnly, Jianghao Sun, Mengliang Zhang, Pei Chen
    Abstract:

    Due to the complexity and variation of the chemical constituents in authentic black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and its potential adulterant species, an accurate and feasible method for black cohosh authentication is not easy. A high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approach was employed to discover new marker compounds. Seven hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for differentiation of black cohosh from related species, including two Asian species (A. foetida, A. dahurica) and two American species (A. pachypoda, A. podocarpa). These markers were putatively identified by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation behavior with those of their authentic aglycone compounds and phytochemistry reports. Two isomers of feruloyl methyldopamine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H]+ 506) and one feruloyl tyramine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H]+ 476) contributed significantly to the separation of Asian species in principle component analysis (PCA) score plot. The efficacy of the models built on four reasonable combinations of these markers in differentiating black cohosh and its adulterants were evaluated and validated by partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two models based on these reduced dataset achieved 100% accuracy based on the current sample collection, including the model that used only three feruloyl dopamine-O-hexoside isomers ([M + H]+ 492) and one feruloyl dopamine-O-dihexoside ([M + H-hexosyl]+ at m/z 492).

Matthias F. Melzig – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • NIR Spectroscopy of Actaea racemosa L. rhizome – En Route to Fast and Low-Cost Quality Assessment.
    Planta medica, 2017
    Co-Authors: Marian Bittner, Regina Schenk, Andreas Springer, Andrea Krähmer, Gennadi Gudi, Matthias F. Melzig
    Abstract:

    Rhizomes of Actaea racemosa L. (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa) gained increasing interest as a plant-derived drug due to its hormone-like activity and the absence of estrogenic activity. According to the Current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines and pharmacopeial standards, quality assessment of herbal starting materials includes tests on identity and substitution, as well as quantification of secondary metabolites, usually by HPTLC and LC methods. To reduce the laboratory effort, we investigated near-infrared specspectroscopy for rapid species authentication and quantification of metabolites of interest. Near-infrared specspectroscopy analysis is carried out directly on the milled raw plant material. Spectra were correlated with reference data of polyphenols and triterpene glycosides determined by LC/diode array detection and LC/evaporative light scattering detection, respectively. Quantification models were built and validated by cross-validation procedures. Clone plants, derived by vegetative propagation, and plants of a collection from different geographical origins cultivated in Berlin were analysed together with mixed batches from wild harvests purchased at wholesalers. Generally, good to excellent correlations were found for the overall content of polyphenols with coefficients of determination of R2 > 0.93. For individual polyphenols such as fukinolic acid, only models containing clone plants succeeded (R2 > 0.92). For the total content of triterpene glycosides, results were generally worse in comparison to polyphenols and were observed only for the mixed batches (R2 = 0.93). Next to quantitative analysis, near-infrared specspectroscopy was proven as a rapid alternative to other, more laborious methods for species authentication. Near-infrared specspectroscopy was able to distinguish different Actaea spp. such as the North American Actaea cordifolia and the Asian Actaea cimicifuga, Actaea dahurica, Actaea heracleifolia, and Actaea simplex.

  • Economical, Plain, and Rapid Authentication of Actaea racemosa L. (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Black Cohosh) Herbal Raw Material by Resilient RP-PDA-HPLC and Chemometric Analysis.
    Phytochemical analysis : PCA, 2016
    Co-Authors: Marian Bittner, Regina Schenk, Andreas Springer, Matthias F. Melzig
    Abstract:

    Introduction The medicinal plant Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae, aka black cohosh) is widely used to treat climacteric complaints as an alternative to hormone substitution. Recent trials prove efficacy and safety of the approved herbal medicinal products from extracts of pharmaceutical quality. This led to worldwide increasing sales. A higher demand for the plant material results in problems with economically motivated adulteration. Thus, reliable tools for herbal drug authentication are necessary. Objective To develop an economical, plain, and rapid method to distinguish between closely related American and Asian Actaea species, using securely established and resilient analytical methods coupled to a chemometric evaluation of the resulting data. Methodology We developed and validated a RP-PDA-HPLC method including an extraction by ultra-sonication to determine the genuine contents of partly hydrolysis-sensitive polyphenols in Actaea racemosa roots and rhizomes, and applied it to a large number of 203 Actaea samples consisting of seven species. Results We were able to generate reliable data with regards to the polyphenolic esters in the samples. The evaluation of this data by principle component analysis (PCA) made a discrimination between Asian Actaea species (sheng ma), one American Actaea species (Appalachian bugbane), and A. racemosa possible. Conclusion The developed RP-PDA-HPLC method coupled to PCA is an excellent tool for authentication of the Actaea racemosa herbal drug, and can be a powerful addition to the TLC methods used in the dedicated pharmacopoeias, and is a promising alternative to expensive and lots of expertise requiring methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Alternative approach to species identification of Actaea racemosa L. (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt., black cohosh) herbal starting material: UV spectroscopy coupled with LDA
    Phytochemistry Letters, 2016
    Co-Authors: Marian Bittner, Regina Schenk, Matthias F. Melzig
    Abstract:

    The North American Actaea racemosa L. (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt., commonly known as black cohosh), considered to be a more “natural” alternative to conventional therapies, is used to relieve menopausal symptoms. The high demand for plant material has led to problems with substitution/adulteration of raw material of wholesale origin. The authenticity of the starting material is crucial for the herbal product’s efficacy and safety, and tests on identity and substitution are integral parts of cGMP guidelines. Consequently, there is a need for economical and easy-applicable test procedures. The aim of this study is to reveal the capability of the well-established UV spectroscopy coupled with a multivariate classification procedure to serve as a tool for the identification of A. racemosa. We built a classification model applying linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to distinguish between A. racemosa and its common substitutes. The model showed a high level of accuracy predicting 100% of the samples correctly. Our results indicate that UV spectroscopy shows potential for the development of possible additional authentication methods for this herbal starting material.

James M. Harnly – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) dietary supplements based on chemometric evaluation of hydroxycinnamic acid esters and hydroxycinnamic acid amides
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2019
    Co-Authors: Ping Geng, Jianghao Sun, Pei Chen, Joe-ann H. Mccoy, James M. Harnly
    Abstract:

    Ester and amide derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids are found in black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa ) and other Actaea plants. These two compound groups were evaluated for authentication of black cohosh dietary supplements. The hydroxycinnamic acid esters (HCAE) were profiled by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA). The hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) were acquired simultaneously by mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring (UPLC-MRM) mode. In contrast with the traditional HCAE method using 8 compounds, profiles of HCAA using only 4 feruloyl dopamine- O -hexosides was more convenient for peak by peak comparison. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to both HCAE and HCAA datasets. Authenticated plant samples of five Actaea species were randomly divided into training and test sets to build and validate the two PLS-DA models. Both models provided reasonable estimates for the classification of A. racemosa and other Actaea plant samples. However, HCAA model performs better in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Assessment of supplement samples provided quite different results for the solid and liquid dietary supplement samples, indicating the dosage form could affect the composition of marker compounds. Graphical abstract

  • Feruloyl dopamine-O-hexosides are efficient marker compounds as orthogonal validation for authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa)—an UHPLC-HRAM-MS chemometrics study
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2017
    Co-Authors: Ping Geng, James M. Harnly, Jianghao Sun, Mengliang Zhang, Pei Chen
    Abstract:

    Due to the complexity and variation of the chemical constituents in authentic black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa ) and its potential adulterant species, an accurate and feasible method for black cohosh authentication is not easy. A high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approach was employed to discover new marker compounds. Seven hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for differentiation of black cohosh from related species, including two Asian species ( A. foetida , A. dahurica ) and two American species ( A. pachypoda , A. podocarpa ). These markers were putatively identified by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation behavior with those of their authentic aglycone compounds and phytochemistry reports. Two isomers of feruloyl methyldopamine 4- O -hexoside ([M + H]^+ 506) and one feruloyl tyramine 4- O -hexoside ([M + H]^+ 476) contributed significantly to the separation of Asian species in principle component analysis (PCA) score plot. The efficacy of the models built on four reasonable combinations of these markers in differentiating black cohosh and its adulterants were evaluated and validated by partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two models based on these reduced dataset achieved 100% accuracy based on the current sample collection, including the model that used only three feruloyl dopamine- O -hexoside isomers ([M + H]^+ 492) and one feruloyl dopamine- O -dihexoside ([M + H-hexosyl]^+ at m / z 492). Graphical abstract Hydroxycinnamic acid amide glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for authentication of black cohosh

  • Feruloyl dopamine-O-hexosides are efficient marker compounds as orthogonal validation for authentication of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa)-an UHPLC-HRAM-MS chemometrics study
    Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 2017
    Co-Authors: Ping Geng, James M. Harnly, Jianghao Sun, Mengliang Zhang, Pei Chen
    Abstract:

    Due to the complexity and variation of the chemical constituents in authentic black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and its potential adulterant species, an accurate and feasible method for black cohosh authentication is not easy. A high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approach was employed to discover new marker compounds. Seven hydroxycinnamic acid amide (HCAA) glycosides are proposed as potential marker compounds for differentiation of black cohosh from related species, including two Asian species (A. foetida, A. dahurica) and two American species (A. pachypoda, A. podocarpa). These markers were putatively identified by comparing their mass spectral fragmentation behavior with those of their authentic aglycone compounds and phytochemistry reports. Two isomers of feruloyl methyldopamine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H]+ 506) and one feruloyl tyramine 4-O-hexoside ([M + H]+ 476) contributed significantly to the separation of Asian species in principle component analysis (PCA) score plot. The efficacy of the models built on four reasonable combinations of these markers in differentiating black cohosh and its adulterants were evaluated and validated by partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two models based on these reduced dataset achieved 100% accuracy based on the current sample collection, including the model that used only three feruloyl dopamine-O-hexoside isomers ([M + H]+ 492) and one feruloyl dopamine-O-dihexoside ([M + H-hexosyl]+ at m/z 492).