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Actinobacillus equuli

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Magne Bisgaard – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Classification of avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like organisms (Bisgaard taxon 26) associated with anseriforme birds as Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov.
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Magne Bisgaard, Henrik Christensen

    Abstract:

    Avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like organisms have tentatively been named Bisgaard taxon 26. Phenotypic information has been published on 65 strains of this taxon. In the current study, 31 isolates were selected for genotypic characterization. Thirty strains had the same rpoB sequence and only one strain diverged in 1 nt. The highest rpoB similarity to members of other taxa was 89.7 % to the type strain of Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus and the similarity to the type strain of the type species, Actinobacillus lignieresii, was 88.2 %. The lowest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains of the group was determined in previous investigations to be 99.6 % and the highest similarities of 96.4 and 96.2 % outside the group were obtained to the reference strain of Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 and to the type strain of A. equuli subsp. equuli, respectively; 95.8–95.3 % similarity was obtained with the type strain of A. lignieresii. recN gene sequence similarities within the group were from 99.5 % (strains F66T and F64) to 99.8 % (strains F66T and F67) corresponding to genome similarities of 93.9–94.6 %, which are near the upper limit for species compared with other members of the Pasteurellaceae. The highest recN similarity outside the group (83.4 %) was observed to the type strain of Actinobacillus capsulatus, whereas the similarity to the type strain of A. lignieresii was 80.9 %, corresponding to genome similarities of 57.7 and 52.0 %, respectively. All isolates meet the phenotypic characters outlined for Actinobacillus (urease-, phosphatase- and porphyrin-positive, indole-negative, acid production from fructose, sucrose, maltose and dextrin). β-Haemolysis of bovine blood is observed and isolates may demonstrate in vitro satellitic growth, referred to as V-factor or NAD requirement. Isolates have been obtained from the upper respiratory tract of web-footed birds in which they may cause sinusitis, conjunctivitis and septicaemia. Based on the characterization reported, it is proposed that the isolates belong to a novel species, Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov., which includes taxon 26 and a V-factor-dependent strain. The major fatty acids of the type strain are C16 : 1ω7c, C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0 3-OH and/or iso-C16 : 1 I, corresponding to the profile observed for the type strain of A. lignieresii. Five to 12 characters separate A. anseriformium from other taxa of Actinobacillus, with Actinobacillus ureae being most closely related; A. anseriformium can be differentiated from A. ureae based on haemolysis, β-glucosidase, and production of acid from (−)-d-sorbitol, trehalose and glycosides. The type strain of A. anseriformium is F66T ( = CCUG 60324T = CCM 7846T), which was isolated from conjunctivitis in a White Pekin duck.

  • prevalence of organisms described as Actinobacillus suis or haemolytic Actinobacillus equuli in the oral cavity of horses comparative investigations of strains obtained and porcine strains of a suis sensu stricto
    Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica Series B: Microbiology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Magne Bisgaard, K Piechulla, Y T Ying, Wilhelm Frederiksen, W Mannheim

    Abstract:

    : Evidence was obtained to indicate that equine strains of organisms previously described as Actinobacillus suis or hemolytic variants of Actinobacillus equuli might constitute a separate group of organisms provisionally designated taxon 11. Four biovars were noticed within taxon 11. Selected DNA:DNA hybridizations support the classification of the mannitol positive biovar 2 of taxon 11 distinct from porcine A. suis. The final taxonomical position of taxon 11, however, has to await more detailed genetic studies including all biovars of taxon 11. A species name has not been suggested for the same reasons. The present observations also indicate that strains identified as taxon 11 apparently constitute a part of the normal bacterial flora in the oral cavity of horses.

  • Actinobacillus equuli subsp equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis
    Apmis, 2007
    Co-Authors: Bent Aalbaek, Henrik Christensen, Stine Ostergaard, Rikke Buhl, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen, Magne Bisgaard

    Abstract:

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within this species (1), this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies is reported, compared to previous findings (1).

Henrik Christensen – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Classification of avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like organisms (Bisgaard taxon 26) associated with anseriforme birds as Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov.
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Magne Bisgaard, Henrik Christensen

    Abstract:

    Avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like organisms have tentatively been named Bisgaard taxon 26. Phenotypic information has been published on 65 strains of this taxon. In the current study, 31 isolates were selected for genotypic characterization. Thirty strains had the same rpoB sequence and only one strain diverged in 1 nt. The highest rpoB similarity to members of other taxa was 89.7 % to the type strain of Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus and the similarity to the type strain of the type species, Actinobacillus lignieresii, was 88.2 %. The lowest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains of the group was determined in previous investigations to be 99.6 % and the highest similarities of 96.4 and 96.2 % outside the group were obtained to the reference strain of Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 and to the type strain of A. equuli subsp. equuli, respectively; 95.8–95.3 % similarity was obtained with the type strain of A. lignieresii. recN gene sequence similarities within the group were from 99.5 % (strains F66T and F64) to 99.8 % (strains F66T and F67) corresponding to genome similarities of 93.9–94.6 %, which are near the upper limit for species compared with other members of the Pasteurellaceae. The highest recN similarity outside the group (83.4 %) was observed to the type strain of Actinobacillus capsulatus, whereas the similarity to the type strain of A. lignieresii was 80.9 %, corresponding to genome similarities of 57.7 and 52.0 %, respectively. All isolates meet the phenotypic characters outlined for Actinobacillus (urease-, phosphatase- and porphyrin-positive, indole-negative, acid production from fructose, sucrose, maltose and dextrin). β-Haemolysis of bovine blood is observed and isolates may demonstrate in vitro satellitic growth, referred to as V-factor or NAD requirement. Isolates have been obtained from the upper respiratory tract of web-footed birds in which they may cause sinusitis, conjunctivitis and septicaemia. Based on the characterization reported, it is proposed that the isolates belong to a novel species, Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov., which includes taxon 26 and a V-factor-dependent strain. The major fatty acids of the type strain are C16 : 1ω7c, C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0 3-OH and/or iso-C16 : 1 I, corresponding to the profile observed for the type strain of A. lignieresii. Five to 12 characters separate A. anseriformium from other taxa of Actinobacillus, with Actinobacillus ureae being most closely related; A. anseriformium can be differentiated from A. ureae based on haemolysis, β-glucosidase, and production of acid from (−)-d-sorbitol, trehalose and glycosides. The type strain of A. anseriformium is F66T ( = CCUG 60324T = CCM 7846T), which was isolated from conjunctivitis in a White Pekin duck.

  • Actinobacillus equuli subsp equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis
    Apmis, 2007
    Co-Authors: Bent Aalbaek, Henrik Christensen, Stine Ostergaard, Rikke Buhl, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen, Magne Bisgaard

    Abstract:

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within this species (1), this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies is reported, compared to previous findings (1).

  • Delineation of the genus Actinobacillus by comparison of partial infB sequences
    International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2004
    Co-Authors: Niels Nørskov-lauritsen, Henrik Christensen, Henrik Okkels, Mogens Kilian, Brita Bruun

    Abstract:

    A 426 bp fragment of infB, a housekeeping gene that encodes translation initiation factor 2, was sequenced from 59 clinical isolates and type strains of Actinobacillus species and sequences were compared. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA genes were also obtained. By comparing infB sequences, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus equuli, Actinobacillus suis, Actinobacillus ureae, Actinobacillus arthritidis, Actinobacillus hominis and two unnamed genomospecies showed more than 85 % similarity to the type strain of the type species of the genus, Actinobacillus lignieresii. The taxonomic position of Actinobacillus capsulatus was unresolved; this species is more remotely related to A. lignieresii. The two species A. lignieresii and A. pleuropneumoniae could not be clearly separated by infB sequence analysis. The phylogeny of the genus Actinobacillus based on infB analysis was essentially congruent with relationships inferred from 16S rRNA sequence comparisons and DNA hybridization studies. Discrepancies were encountered with single strains or taxa at the periphery of the genus. Greater intraspecies variation was observed with infB sequences than with 16S rRNA gene sequences, with notable exceptions. The apparent subdivision of some species by 16S rRNA analysis was most likely caused by RNA operon heterogeneity.

Joachim Frey – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The role of RTX toxins in host specificity of animal pathogenic Pasteurellaceae.
    Veterinary microbiology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Joachim Frey

    Abstract:

    RTX toxins are bacterial pore-forming toxins that are particularly abundant among pathogenic species of Pasteurellaceae, in which they play a major role in virulence. RTX toxins of several primary pathogens of the family of Pasteurellaceae are directly involved in causing necrotic lesions in the target organs. Many RTX toxins are known as haemolysins because they lyse erythrocytes in vitro, an effect that is non-specific, but which serves as a useful marker in bacteriological identification and as an easily measurable signal in vitro in experimental studies. More recent studies have shown that the specific targets of most RTX toxins are leukocytes, with RTX toxins binding to the corresponding β-subunit (CD18) of β2 integrins and then exerting cytotoxic activity. After uptake by the target cell, at sub-lytic concentrations, some RTX toxins are transported to mitochondria and induce apoptosis. For several RTX toxins the binding to CD18 has been shown to be host specific and this seems to be the basis for the host range specificity of these RTX toxins. Observations on two very closely related species of the Pasteurellaceae family, Actinobacillus suis, a porcine pathogen particularly affecting suckling pigs, and Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolytica, which causes pyosepticaemia in new-born foals (sleepy foal disease), have revealed that they express different RTX toxins, named ApxI/II and Aqx, respectively. These RTX toxins are specifically cytotoxic for porcine and equine leukocytes, respectively. Furthermore, the ApxI and Aqx toxins of these species, when expressed in an isogenetic background in Escherichia coli, are specifically cytotoxic for leukocytes of their respective hosts. These data indicate the determinative role of RTX toxins in host specificity of pathogenic species of Pasteurellaceae.

  • antibodies to aqx toxin of Actinobacillus equuli in horses and foals
    Veterinary Record, 2004
    Co-Authors: Helene Berthoud, Joachim Frey, R Straub, S. Sternberg, Peter Kuhnert

    Abstract:

    Actinobacillus equuli is found in the normal oral flora of horses, but has been associated with several diseases, and particularly with the usually fatal septicaemia in neonatal foals which is thought to be associated with a failure of the passive transfer of immunoglobulins via the colostrum. The Aqx protein of A equuli, belonging to the RTX family of pore-forming toxins, is also cytotoxic to horse lymphocytes. The presence of antibodies to Aqx was investigated in sera from individual horses from different regions; the sera from adult horses and foals 24 hours after birth reacted with Aqx, and sera from foals sampled shortly after an intake of colostrum also reacted with Aqx, but sera from foals taken before an intake of colostrum did not react with Aqx.

  • phylogenetic relationship of equine Actinobacillus species and distribution of rtx toxin genes among clusters
    Veterinary Research, 2003
    Co-Authors: Peter Kuhnert, Helene Berthoud, Henrik Christensen, Magne Bisgaard, Joachim Frey

    Abstract:

    Equine Actinobacillus species were analysed phylogenetically by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing focusing on the species Actinobacillus equuli, which has recently been subdivided into the non-haemolytic A. equuli subsp. equuli and the haemolytic A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus. In parallel we determined the profile for RTX toxin genes of the sample of strains by PCR testing for the presence of the A. equuli haemolysin gene aqx, and the toxin genes apxI, apxII, apxIII and apxIV, which are known in porcine pathogens such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus suis. The rrs-based phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct subclusters containing both A. equuli subsp. equuli and A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus distributed through both subclusters with no correlation to taxonomic classification. Within one of the rrs-based subclusters containing the A. equuli subsp. equuli type strain, clustered as well the porcine Actinobacillus suis strains. This latter is known to be also phenotypically closely related to A. equuli. The toxin gene analysis revealed that all A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus strains from both rrs subclusters specifically contained the aqx gene while the A. suis strains harboured the genes apxI and apxII. The aqx gene was found to be specific for A. equuli subsp. haemolyticus, since A. equuli subsp. equuli contained no aqx nor any of the other RTX genes tested. The specificity of aqx for the haemolytic equine A. equuli and ApxI and ApxII for the porcine A. suis indicates a role of these RTX toxins in host species predilection of the two closely related species of bacterial pathogens and allows PCR based diagnostic differentiation of the two.