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Richard A. Bryant – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The Current Evidence for Acute Stress Disorder.
    Current Psychiatry Reports, 2018
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant

    Abstract:

    The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current evidence pertaining to the course of Acute and chronic posttraumatic Stress, the diagnosis of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD), and treatment of Acute Stress Disorder and prevention of posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Although Acute Stress Disorder was introduced partly to predict subsequent PTSD, longitudinal studies indicate that ASD is not an accurate predictor of PTSD. Recent analytic approaches adopting latent growth mixture modeling have shown that trauma-exposed people tend to follow one of four trajectories: (a) resilient, (b) worsening, (c) recovery, and (d) chronically diStressed. The complexity of the course of posttraumatic Stress limits the capacity of the ASD diagnosis to predict subsequent PTSD. Current evidence indicates that the treatment of choice for ASD is trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy, and this intervention results in reduced chronic PTSD severity. Recent attempts to limit subsequent PTSD by early provision of pharmacological interventions have been promising, especially administration of corticosterone to modulate glucocorticoid levels. Although the ASD diagnosis does not accurately predict chronic PTSD, it describes recently trauma-exposed people with severe diStress. Provision of CBT in the Acute phase is the best available strategy to limit subsequent PTSD.

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  • Acute Stress Disorder
    Current opinion in psychology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant

    Abstract:

    Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was introduced in DSM-IV to describe posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms that (a) occur in the initial month after trauma and (b) predict subsequent PTSD. Longitudinal studies have shown that most people who develop PTSD do not initially meet ASD criteria, which led to the decision in DSM-5 to limit the ASD diagnosis to describing Acute Stress reactions without any predictive function. Controlled trials have shown that trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice for ASD, and is superior to pharmacological interventions. Recent longitudinal studies have challenged previous conceptualizations of the course of posttraumatic Stress, and highlighted that people follow different trajectories of adaptation that are influenced by events that occur after the Acute posttraumatic period.

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  • The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology – Acute Stress Disorder
    Current Opinion in Psychology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant

    Abstract:

    Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was introduced in DSM-IV to describe posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms that (a) occur in the initial month after trauma and (b) predict subsequent PTSD. Longitudinal studies have shown that most people who develop PTSD do not initially meet ASD criteria, which led to the decision in DSM-5 to limit the ASD diagnosis to describing Acute Stress reactions without any predictive function. Controlled trials have shown that trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice for ASD, and is superior to pharmacological interventions. Recent longitudinal studies have challenged previous conceptualizations of the course of posttraumatic Stress, and highlighted that people follow different trajectories of adaptation that are influenced by events that occur after the Acute posttraumatic period.

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Allison G. Harvey – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • gender differences in the relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and posttraumatic Stress Disorder following motor vehicle accidents
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2003
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant, Allison G. Harvey

    Abstract:

    Objective: Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) describes initial posttraumatic Stress reactions that purportedly predict subsequent posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to index the influence of gender on the relationship between ASD and PTSD.Method: Motor vehicle accident survivors were assessed for ASD within 1-month posttrauma (n = 171) and were subsequently assessed for PTSD 6-months later (n = 134).Results: Acute Stress Disorder was diagnosed in 8% of males and 23% of females, and PTSD was diagnosed in 15% of males and 38% of females. In terms of patients followed up at 6 months, 57% and 92% of males and females, respectively, who met criteria for ASD were diagnosed with PTSD. Females displayed significantly more peritraumatic dissociation than males.Conclusion: Peritraumatic dissociation and ASD is a more accurate predictor of PTSD in females than males. This gender difference may be explained in terms of response bias or biological differences in trauma response between males and females.

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  • Acute Stress Disorder: a synthesis and critique.
    Psychological Bulletin, 2002
    Co-Authors: Allison G. Harvey, Richard A. Bryant

    Abstract:

    The diagnosis of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was introduced to describe initial trauma reactions that predict chronic posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This review outlines and critiques the rationales underpinning the ASD diagnosis and highlights conceptual and empirical problems inherent in this diagnosis. The authors conclude that there is little justification for the ASD diagnosis in its present form. The evidence for and against the current emphasis on peritraumatic dissociation is discussed, and the range of biological and cognitive mechanisms that potentially mediate Acute trauma response are reviewed. The available evidence indicates that alternative means of conceptualizing Acute trauma reactions and identifying Acutely traumatized people who are at risk of developing PTSD need to be considered.

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  • Two-year prospective evaluation of the relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and posttraumatic Stress Disorder following mild traumatic brain injury.
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 2000
    Co-Authors: Allison G. Harvey, Richard A. Bryant

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of Acute Stress Disorder to predict posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD over the 2 years following mild traumatic brain injury was determined. METHOD: Survivors of motor vehicle accidents who sustained mild traumatic brain injuries were assessed for Acute Stress Disorder within 1 month of the trauma (N=79) and for PTSD at 6 months (N=63) and 2 years (N=50) posttrauma. RESULTS: Acute Stress Disorder was diagnosed in 14% of the patients. Among the patients who participated in all three assessments, 80% of the subjects who met the criteria for Acute Stress Disorder were diagnosed with PTSD at 2 years. Of the total initial group, 73% of those diagnosed with Acute Stress Disorder had PTSD at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further support for the utility of the Acute Stress Disorder diagnosis as a predictor of PTSD but indicates that the predictive power of the diagnostic criteria can be increased by placing gr…

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Rachel M. Guthrie – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Treating Acute Stress Disorder Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant, Michelle L. Moulds, Rachel M. Guthrie, Reginald D. V. Nixon

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Acute Stress Disorder permits early identification of trauma survivors who are at risk of developing chronic posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to prevent PTSD in people who developed Acute Stress Disorder after a mild brain injury by early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. METHOD: Twenty-four civilian trauma survivors with Acute Stress Disorder were given five individually administered sessions of either cognitive behavior therapy or supportive counseling within 2 weeks of their trauma. RESULTS: Fewer patients receiving cognitive behavior therapy than supportive counseling met criteria for PTSD at a posttreatment evaluation (8% versus 58%, respectively). There were also fewer cases of PTSD at a 6-month follow-up evaluation among those receiving cognitive behavior therapy (17%) than among those receiving supportive counseling (58%). Patients in the cognitive behavior therapy condition displayed less reexperiencing and avoidance symptoms at the follow-up evaluation tha…

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  • Hypnotizability in Acute Stress Disorder
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 2001
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant, Rachel M. Guthrie, Michelle L. Moulds

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between Acute dissociative reactions to trauma and hypnotizability. METHOD: Acutely traumatized patients (N=61) with Acute Stress Disorder, subclinical Acute Stress Disorder (no dissociative symptoms), and no Acute Stress Disorder were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale within 4 weeks of their trauma. RESULTS: Although patients with Acute Stress Disorder and patients with subclinical Acute Stress Disorder displayed comparable levels of nondissociative psychopathology, Acute Stress Disorder patients had higher levels of hypnotizability and were more likely to display reversible posthypnotic amnesia than both patients with subclinical Acute Stress Disorder and patients with no Acute Stress Disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The findings may be interpreted in light of a diathesis-Stress process mediating trauma-related dissociation. People who develop Acute Stress Disorder in response to traumatic experience may have a stronger ability to experience diss…

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  • Cognitive strategies and the resolution of Acute Stress Disorder
    Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2001
    Co-Authors: Richard A. Bryant, Michelle L. Moulds, Rachel M. Guthrie

    Abstract:

    Information processing theories propose that resolution of posttraumatic Stress is mediated by activation of traumatic memories and modification of threat-based beliefs. It is argued that this adaptive response is associated with reduced cognitive avoidance. Thought control strategies were assessed in civilian trauma survivors with Acute Stress Disorder (N = 45) prior to and following either cognitive behavior therapy or supportive counseling. Participants completed the Acute Stress Disorder Interview, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale, and the Thought Control Questionnaire within 2 weeks of their trauma and 6 months following treatment. Receiving cognitive behavior therapy was associated with reductions in the use of punishment and worry, and increases in the use of reappraisal and social control strategies. Further, reduced posttraumatic Stress symptoms were associated with increased use of social control strategies and reappraisal strategies, and decreased use of worry. Findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive strategies that may mediate Acute posttraumatic Stress.

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