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Agraphia

The Experts below are selected from a list of 264 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Yasuhisa Sakurai – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • kanji morphogram and kana phonogram problem in japanese alexia and Agraphia
    Frontiers of neurology and neuroscience, 2019
    Co-Authors: Yasuhisa Sakurai

    Abstract:

    : The kanji and kana (or kanji vs. kana) problem in the Japanese language denotes the dissociation between kanji (morphograms) and kana (phonograms) in reading/comprehension and writing. Since parAgraphia of kana in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was first reported in 1893, kanji-kana dissociation has been the central topic in Japanese aphasiology. Recent advancements in lesion-to-symptom analyses and functional imaging studies have identified some areas whose damage causes dissociative disturbances of reading or writing between kanji and kana. That is, (1) angular alexia with Agraphia causes kanji Agraphia; alexia of kana with an angular gyrus lesion is the result of a damage to the middle occipital gyrus; (2) alexia with Agraphia for kanji is caused by a posterior inferior temporal cortex (mid-fusiform/inferior temporal gyri; visual word form area) lesion, whereas pure Agraphia for kanji is caused by a posterior middle temporal gyrus lesion; and (3) pure alexia, particularly for kanji, results from a mid-fusiform gyrus lesion (Brodmann’s Area [BA] 37), whereas pure alexia for kana results from a posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri lesion (BA 18/19).

  • frontal phonological Agraphia and acalculia with impaired verbal short term memory due to left inferior precentral gyrus lesion
    Case Reports in Neurology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yasuhisa Sakurai, Emi Furukawa, Masanori Kurihara, Izumi Sugimoto

    Abstract:

    : We report a patient with phonological Agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic parAgraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and Agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of Agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological Agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  • Lesion localization of non-aphasic alexia and Agraphia
    Rinshō shinkeigaku Clinical neurology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Yasuhisa Sakurai

    Abstract:

    : The author reviews the lesion localization of non-aphasic alexia and Agraphia and proposes a new classification of alexia and Agraphia on this basis. The newly proposed alexia and Agraphia are pure alexia for kana (Japanese phonograms), or more generally pure alexia for letters, caused by a lesion in the posterior occipital area (posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri), and pure Agraphia for kanji (Japanese morphograms) caused by a lesion in the posterior middle temporal gyrus and also a lesion restricted to the angular gyrus. In addition, the anatomical lesions presumably responsible for the parietal apraxic Agraphia, frontal pure Agraphia and thalamic Agraphia are discussed.

Steven Z Rapcsak – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the nature and treatment of phonological text Agraphia
    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Pelagie M Beeson, Kindle Rising, Andrew T Demarco, Taylor Howard Foley, Steven Z Rapcsak

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTPhonological alexia and Agraphia are written language disorders characterised by disproportionate difficulty reading and spelling nonwords in comparison to real words. In phonological alexia, it has been shown that, despite relatively accurate reading of words in isolation, text-level reading deficits are often marked and persistent. Specifically, some individuals demonstrate difficulty reading functors and affixes in sentences, a profile referred to as phonological text alexia. In this paper, we demonstrate an analogous manifestation of the phonological impairment on text-level writing and suggest the term “phonological text Agraphia”. We examined four individuals with phonological alexia/Agraphia who also showed disproportionate difficulty writing well-formed sentences in comparison to their grammatical competence in spoken utterances. Implementation of a phonological treatment protocol resulted in significantly improved sublexical phonology skills as well as improvements in grammatical accuracy…

  • phonological alexia Agraphia reflects damage to the dorsal language pathway evidence from multimodal imaging s18 005
    Neurology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Steven Z Rapcsak, Andrew T Demarco, Stephen M Wilson, Pelagie M Beeson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the neural substrates of phonological alexia/Agraphia using multimodal imaging, including structural MRI/CT, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional MRI (fMRI). BACKGROUND: Contemporary neuroanatomical models of language postulate a dorsal pathway specialized for mapping phonological representations to articulatory networks during speech production and tasks involving phonological working memory. Because maintenance and manipulation of sublexical phonological information plays a critical role in reading/spelling unfamiliar nonwords, we hypothesized that damage to the dorsal pathway should be associated with the clinical profile of phonological alexia/Agraphia. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in a large group of post-stroke aphasic patients with MRI/CT evidence of left-hemisphere damage (n=70) who were administered a comprehensive reading/spelling battery. In a subgroup with phonological alexia/Agraphia, DTI (n=7) and fMRI data during real word and nonword reading (n=5) were also collected. RESULTS: VLSM indicated that impaired nonword reading/spelling and an enlarged lexicality effect (words > nonwords) were associated with damage to the dorsal language pathway, including posterior superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus/operculum, precentral gyrus, and insula. DTI showed that patients with phonological alexia/Agraphia sustained damage to white matter tracts connecting these perisylvian cortical regions, including the superior longitudinal/arcuate fasciculus. fMRI revealed reduced activation in dorsal pathway regions compared to controls (n=8) and increased recruitment of extrasylvian cortical areas that are components of the ventral language pathway implicated in lexical-semantic processing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that phonological alexia/Agraphia results from damage to the dorsal pathway that includes core perisylvian language areas and their connecting white matter tracts. In functional terms, the written language disorder reflects defective engagement of perisylvian cortical networks critical for processing sublexical phonological information during nonword reading/spelling and compensatory over-reliance on a lexical-semantic strategy mediated by preserved ventral pathway regions responsible for mapping phonological and orthographic representations of familiar words to their meanings. Supported by: R01 DC07646. Disclosure: Dr. Rapcsak has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Dr. DeMarco has nothing to disclose. Dr. Wilson has nothing to disclose. Dr. Beeson has nothing to disclose.

  • a treatment sequence for phonological alexia Agraphia
    Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 2010
    Co-Authors: Pelagie M Beeson, Kindle Rising, Steven Z Rapcsak

    Abstract:

    Purpose Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological Agraphia. T…

Pelagie M Beeson – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the nature and treatment of phonological text Agraphia
    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Pelagie M Beeson, Kindle Rising, Andrew T Demarco, Taylor Howard Foley, Steven Z Rapcsak

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTPhonological alexia and Agraphia are written language disorders characterised by disproportionate difficulty reading and spelling nonwords in comparison to real words. In phonological alexia, it has been shown that, despite relatively accurate reading of words in isolation, text-level reading deficits are often marked and persistent. Specifically, some individuals demonstrate difficulty reading functors and affixes in sentences, a profile referred to as phonological text alexia. In this paper, we demonstrate an analogous manifestation of the phonological impairment on text-level writing and suggest the term “phonological text Agraphia”. We examined four individuals with phonological alexia/Agraphia who also showed disproportionate difficulty writing well-formed sentences in comparison to their grammatical competence in spoken utterances. Implementation of a phonological treatment protocol resulted in significantly improved sublexical phonology skills as well as improvements in grammatical accuracy…

  • phonological alexia Agraphia reflects damage to the dorsal language pathway evidence from multimodal imaging s18 005
    Neurology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Steven Z Rapcsak, Andrew T Demarco, Stephen M Wilson, Pelagie M Beeson

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the neural substrates of phonological alexia/Agraphia using multimodal imaging, including structural MRI/CT, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional MRI (fMRI). BACKGROUND: Contemporary neuroanatomical models of language postulate a dorsal pathway specialized for mapping phonological representations to articulatory networks during speech production and tasks involving phonological working memory. Because maintenance and manipulation of sublexical phonological information plays a critical role in reading/spelling unfamiliar nonwords, we hypothesized that damage to the dorsal pathway should be associated with the clinical profile of phonological alexia/Agraphia. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in a large group of post-stroke aphasic patients with MRI/CT evidence of left-hemisphere damage (n=70) who were administered a comprehensive reading/spelling battery. In a subgroup with phonological alexia/Agraphia, DTI (n=7) and fMRI data during real word and nonword reading (n=5) were also collected. RESULTS: VLSM indicated that impaired nonword reading/spelling and an enlarged lexicality effect (words > nonwords) were associated with damage to the dorsal language pathway, including posterior superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus/operculum, precentral gyrus, and insula. DTI showed that patients with phonological alexia/Agraphia sustained damage to white matter tracts connecting these perisylvian cortical regions, including the superior longitudinal/arcuate fasciculus. fMRI revealed reduced activation in dorsal pathway regions compared to controls (n=8) and increased recruitment of extrasylvian cortical areas that are components of the ventral language pathway implicated in lexical-semantic processing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that phonological alexia/Agraphia results from damage to the dorsal pathway that includes core perisylvian language areas and their connecting white matter tracts. In functional terms, the written language disorder reflects defective engagement of perisylvian cortical networks critical for processing sublexical phonological information during nonword reading/spelling and compensatory over-reliance on a lexical-semantic strategy mediated by preserved ventral pathway regions responsible for mapping phonological and orthographic representations of familiar words to their meanings. Supported by: R01 DC07646. Disclosure: Dr. Rapcsak has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Dr. DeMarco has nothing to disclose. Dr. Wilson has nothing to disclose. Dr. Beeson has nothing to disclose.

  • a treatment sequence for phonological alexia Agraphia
    Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 2010
    Co-Authors: Pelagie M Beeson, Kindle Rising, Steven Z Rapcsak

    Abstract:

    Purpose Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological Agraphia. T…