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Alpacas

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Abdul Jabbar – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of Alpacas in australia ii a longitudinal study
    Parasitology Research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Mohammed H Rashid, Angus J D Campbell, Jane L Vaughan, Mark Stevenson, Ian Beveridge, Muhammad A Saeed, Abdul Jabbar

    Abstract:

    We conducted a longitudinal survey on 13 alpaca farms in four climatic zones of Australia to understand the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of Alpacas. A total of 1688 fresh faecal samples were collected from both sexes of Alpacas from May 2015 to April 2016 and processed for faecal egg counts (FEC) and molecular identification of eggs using the multiplexed-tandem PCR assay. Based on egg morphology, the overall prevalence of GINs was 61% while that for strongyles was 53%. The overall mean FEC was 168 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces, with the highest count of 15,540 EPG. Weaners had the highest prevalence (73%) and mean FEC (295 EPG) of GINs followed by tuis, crias and adults. Alpacas in the winter rainfall zone had the highest prevalence (68%) as well as FEC (266 EPG) followed by Mediterranean-type, non-seasonal and summer rainfall zones. Trichostrongylus spp. (83%, 89/107), Haemonchus spp. (71%, 76/107) and Camelostrongylus mentulatus (63%, 67/107) were the three most common GINs of Alpacas across all climatic zones. The mixed-effects zero-inflated negative binomial regression model used in this study showed that it could help to design parasite control interventions targeted at both the herd level and the individual alpaca level. The findings of this study showed that the epidemiology of GINs of Alpacas is very similar to those of cattle and sheep, and careful attention should be paid when designing control strategies for domestic ruminants co-grazing with Alpacas.

  • anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of Alpacas vicugna pacos in australia
    Parasites & Vectors, 2018
    Co-Authors: Mohammed H Rashid, Angus J D Campbell, Jane L Vaughan, Mark Stevenson, Ian Beveridge, Abdul Jabbar

    Abstract:

    Background
    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) can cause significant economic losses in Alpacas due to lowered production of fibre and meat. Although no anthelmintics are registered for use in Alpacas, various classes of anthelmintics are frequently used to control parasitic gastroenteritis in Alpacas in Australia and other countries. Very little is known about the current worm control practices as well as the efficacy of anthelmintics used against common GINs of Alpacas. This study aimed to assess the existing worm control practices used by Australian alpaca farmers and to quantify the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics against GINs of Alpacas.

  • Sarcocystosis in South American camelids: The state of play revisited
    Parasites & Vectors, 2018
    Co-Authors: Muhammad A Saeed, Mohammed H Rashid, Jane Vaughan, Abdul Jabbar

    Abstract:

    Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as Alpacas, llamas and guanacos. These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, Alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides. For instance, alpaca meat is becoming popular in many parts of the world due to its lower cholesterol content than other red meat, thereby it has the potential of a valuable product for both local and international markets. However, SAC meat can be degraded and/or even condemned due to the presence of macroscopic sarcocysts in skeletal muscles, leading to significant economic losses to farmers. The infection is generally asymptomatic, though highly pathogenic or even fatal Sarcocystis infections have also been reported in Alpacas and llamas. Despite the economic importance of sarcocystosis in SACs, little is known about the life-cycle of parasites involved, disease transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health significance. This review article provides an in-depth analysis of the existing knowledge on the taxonomy, epidemiology, clinicopathology and diagnosis of Sarcocystis in SACs, highlights knowledge gaps and proposes future areas of research that could contribute to our better understanding of sarcocystosis in these animals.

Daniela Bedenice – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis fecal shedding in Alpacas presented to veterinary hospitals in the united states
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2013
    Co-Authors: M E Fecteau, Daniela Bedenice, Christopher K Cebra, Toby L Pinn, Susan C Mcadams, Terry L Fyock, R H Whitlock, R W Sweeney

    Abstract:

    Background

    The prevalence of Johne’s disease in Alpacas in the United States is unknown. The limits of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in alpaca feces have not been determined.

    Objectives

    To evaluate the use of PCR for MAP detection in alpaca feces; and to estimate the prevalence of MAP fecal shedding in Alpacas presented to veterinary teaching hospitals.

    Animals

    Alpacas presenting to 4 US veterinary teaching hospitals from November 2009 to February 2011.

    Methods

    Prospective study. Ten dilutions of a wild MAP strain were added to negative alpaca feces and processed for MAP detection by means of a commercial real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay, and cultured on Herrold’s Egg Yolk Medium (HEYM) and liquid broth. The limits of detection for each method were determined. Fecal samples from Alpacas admitted to the veterinary teaching hospitals during the study period were evaluated for MAP via PCR and HEYM.

    Results

    The lowest MAP dilution detectable via PCR was 243 MAP colony-forming units (CFU)/g of feces, at which concentration MAP growth was detectable on HEYM. Ten (6%; 95% confidence interval: 3–9%) of the 180 fecal samples collected were positive on PCR.

    Conclusions and Clinical Importance

    Polymerase chain reaction can provide an accurate and rapid detection of MAP fecal shedding in Alpacas; and the prevalence of MAP fecal shedding in hospitalized Alpacas in 4 US veterinary teaching hospitals was 6%.

  • systemic distribution of viral antigen in Alpacas persistently infected with bovine pestivirus
    Veterinary Pathology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Jamie Henningson, David J Steffen, Christina L Topliff, Kathy L Kurth, Richard R Dubielzig, Bruce W Brodersen, Daniela Bedenice, Kent M Eskridge, Robert J Callan

    Abstract:

    Recently, confirmed occurrences of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in North American Alpacas have raised concerns about the role of persistently infected (PI) Alpacas in transmission of virus among herds, yet only limited pathological descriptions of persistent infections in Alpacas have been reported. The objective of this study was to characterize BVDV antigen distribution in 10 PI Alpacas of varying age and to compare viral antigen distribution and localization in tissues of PI Alpacas with 5 PI calves of varying age. Ocular dysplasia was evident in 1 PI alpaca, constituting the first reported congenital ocular lesion in PI Alpacas. Viral antigen was widely distributed in alpaca tissues and was prominent in neurons, endothelial cells, and vascular tunica media myocytes but had limited distribution in lymphoid tissues and moderate distribution in epithelium of several organ systems of Alpacas. Macrophages in the alpaca gastrointestinal system submucosa and lymph node medullary si…

  • florfenicol pharmacokinetics in healthy adult Alpacas after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection
    Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2012
    Co-Authors: K Holmes, Daniela Bedenice, Mark G Papich

    Abstract:

    Holmes, K., Bedenice, D., Papich, M. G. Florfenicol pharmacokinetics in healthy adult Alpacas after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 35, 382–388.

    A single dose of florfenicol (Nuflor®) was administered to eight healthy adult Alpacas at 20 mg/kg intramuscular (i.m.) and 40 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.) using a randomized, cross-over design, and 28-day washout period. Subsequently, 40 mg/kg florfenicol was injected s.c. every other day for 10 doses to evaluate long-term effects. Maximum plasma florfenicol concentrations (Cmax, measured via high-performance liquid chromatography) were achieved rapidly, leading to a higher Cmax of 4.31 ± 3.03 μg/mL following administration of 20 mg/kg i.m. than 40 mg/kg s.c. (Cmax: 1.95 ± 0.94 μg/mL). Multiple s.c. dosing at 48 h intervals achieved a Cmax of 4.48 ± 1.28 μg/mL at steady state. The area under the curve and terminal elimination half-lives were 51.83 ± 11.72 μg/mL·h and 17.59 ± 11.69 h after single 20 mg/kg i.m. dose, as well as 99.78 ± 23.58 μg/mL·h and 99.67 ± 59.89 h following 40 mg/kg injection of florfenicol s.c., respectively. Florfenicol decreased the following hematological parameters after repeated administration between weeks 0 and 3: total protein (6.38 vs. 5.61 g/dL, P < 0.0001), globulin (2.76 vs. 2.16 g/dL, P < 0.0003), albumin (3.61 vs. 3.48 g/dL, P = 0.0038), white blood cell count (11.89 vs. 9.66 × 103/μL, P < 0.044), and hematocrit (27.25 vs. 24.88%, P < 0.0349). Significant clinical illness was observed in one alpaca. The lowest effective dose of florfenicol should thus be used in Alpacas and limited to treatment of highly susceptible pathogens.

Thomas J Doherty – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on tiletamine hydrochloride zolazepam hydrochloride anesthesia in Alpacas
    American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Reza Seddighi, Agricola Odoi, Thomas J Doherty

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in Alpacas. ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male Alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when Alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes…

  • Effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride anesthesia in Alpacas
    American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2016
    Co-Authors: Reza Seddighi, Agricola Odoi, Thomas J Doherty

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in Alpacas. ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male Alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when Alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes…