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Aluminum Hydroxide

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Michael S Petrik – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aluminum Hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration
    Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Christopher A Shaw, Michael S Petrik

    Abstract:

    Gulf War Syndrome is a multi-system disorder afflicting many veterans of Western armies in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. A number of those afflicted may show neurological deficits including various cognitive dysfunctions and motor neuron disease, the latter expression virtually indistinguishable from classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) except for the age of onset. This ALS “cluster” represents the second such ALS cluster described in the literature to date. Possible causes of GWS include several of the adjuvants in the anthrax vaccine and others. The most likely culprit appears to be Aluminum Hydroxide. In an initial series of experiments, we examined the potential toxicity of Aluminum Hydroxide in male, outbred CD-1 mice injected subcutaneously in two equivalent-to-human doses. After sacrifice, spinal cord and motor cortex samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of Aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of Aluminum Hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of Aluminum Hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted.

Christopher A Shaw – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aluminum Hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration
    Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009
    Co-Authors: Christopher A Shaw, Michael S Petrik

    Abstract:

    Gulf War Syndrome is a multi-system disorder afflicting many veterans of Western armies in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. A number of those afflicted may show neurological deficits including various cognitive dysfunctions and motor neuron disease, the latter expression virtually indistinguishable from classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) except for the age of onset. This ALS “cluster” represents the second such ALS cluster described in the literature to date. Possible causes of GWS include several of the adjuvants in the anthrax vaccine and others. The most likely culprit appears to be Aluminum Hydroxide. In an initial series of experiments, we examined the potential toxicity of Aluminum Hydroxide in male, outbred CD-1 mice injected subcutaneously in two equivalent-to-human doses. After sacrifice, spinal cord and motor cortex samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of Aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of Aluminum Hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of Aluminum Hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted.

Stanley L. Hem – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • In-Vitro Adsorption of Cholate Anion at pH 7.5 by Aluminum Hydroxide
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 2008
    Co-Authors: Lisa Eaton, Joe L. White, Stanley L. Hem

    Abstract:

    AbstractThe in-vitro adsorptive capacities of Aluminum Hydroxide gel, dried Aluminum Hydroxide gel, and boehmite for cholate anion were determined at pH 7.5, 37°C and compared to cholestyramine. The adsorptive capacity of Aluminum Hydroxide gel was similar to cholestyramine. However, spray drying reduced the adsorptive capacity by approximately 50%. Boehmite, a crystalline Aluminum oxyHydroxide, had an adsorptive capacity similar to dried Aluminum Hydroxide gel. The results support the hypothesis that adsorption of bile salts contributes to the constipation which is sometimes associated with Aluminum Hydroxide therapy.

  • mechanism of adsorption of hepatitis b surface antigen by Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant
    Vaccine, 2004
    Co-Authors: Seema Iyer, Harm Hogenesch, R Robin S Robinett, Stanley L. Hem

    Abstract:

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) differs from many antigens because of its associated lipid bilayer that is largely composed of phospholipids. In general, phosphate groups adsorb strongly to hydroxylated mineral surfaces by ligand exchange. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of adsorption of hepatitis B surface antigen to Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant with emphasis on the role of phospholipids in this adsorption. The adsorption of HBsAg by Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant exhibits a high affinity adsorption isotherm. The Langmuir equation was used to calculate the adsorptive capacity (1.7 microg/microg Al), which is the amount of HBsAg adsorbed at monolayer coverage and the adsorptive coefficient (6.0 ml/microg), which is a measure of the strength of the adsorption force. The relatively high value of the adsorptive coefficient indicates that adsorption is due to a strong attractive force. Ligand exchange between a phosphate of the antigen and a surface hydroxyl of the adjuvant provides the strongest adsorption mechanism. The adsorption capacity of HBsAg was not affected by increased ionic strength indicating that electrostatic attraction is not the predominant adsorption force. Adsorption was also not affected by the addition of ethylene glycol indicating that hydrophobic interactions were not the predominant adsorption force. The strength of the adsorption force was indicated by the resistance of HBsAg to elution when exposed to interstitial fluid. Less than 5% of the HBsAg adsorbed to Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant in a model vaccine was eluted during a 12 h in vitro exposure to interstitial fluid at 37 degrees C. Less than 1% of the adsorbed HBsAg in two commercial vaccines was eluted by in vitro exposure to interstitial fluid for 48 h at 37 degrees C. Thus, it was concluded that adsorption of HBsAg by Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant is predominantly due to ligand exchange between the phospholipids in HBsAg and surface hydroxyls in Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant.

  • effect of the degree of phosphate substitution in Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant on the adsorption of phosphorylated proteins
    Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Seema Iyer, Harm Hogenesch, Stanley L. Hem

    Abstract:

    Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant was pretreated with six concentrations of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to produce a series of adjuvants with various degrees of phosphate substitution for surface hydroxyl. The adsorption of three phosphorylated proteins (alpha casein, dephosphorylated alpha casein, and ovalbumin) by the phosphate-treated Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvants was studied. The phosphorylated proteins were adsorbed by ligand exchange of phosphate for hydroxyl even when an electrostatic repulsive force was present. However, the extent (adsorptive capacity) and strength (adsorptive coefficient) of adsorption was inversely related to the degree of phosphate substitution of the Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant. Exposure of vaccines containing Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant and phosphorylated antigens to phosphate ion in the formulation or during manufacture should be minimized to produce maximum adsorption of the antigen.