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Aphidius ervi

The Experts below are selected from a list of 1989 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Francesco Pennacchio – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • flight behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi hymenoptera braconidae in response to plant and host volatiles
    European Journal of Entomology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Emilio Guerrieri, Francesco Pennacchio, E Tremblay

    Abstract:

    The flight behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been studied in a wind tunnel, in response to the following natural odour sources: broad bean plants infested with Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) (PHC, plant-host complex), damaged broad bean plants from which the aphids were removed (HDP, host damaged plants), aphids (H, host) and uninfested broad bean plants (P, plant). The most attractive odour sources were PHC and HDP, which both stimulated a similar high number of oriented straight flights. In contrast, H and P were much less attractive and did not seem to be important in the long range attraction of the parasitoids.

  • cornicle secretion of acyrthosiphon pisum homoptera aphididae as a contact kairomone for the parasitoid Aphidius ervi hymenoptera braconidae
    European Journal of Entomology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Donatella Battaglia, Francesco Pennacchio, G Marincola, A Tranfaglia

    Abstract:

    Females of the endophagous parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) respond positively to the cornicle secretion of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae). The parasitoid response has been assessed in a Petri dish choice test by presenting an aphid dummy consisting of a glass bead coated with cornicle secretion along with an untreated bead, which acted as a control. Naive females responded similarly to the treated glass beads and aphids, while experienced females responded less to the treated beads than to aphids. The kairomonal activity of the cornicle secretion decreased as the wax dried. The behavioural response registered seems to be innate and not induced by associative learning.

  • functional analysis of a fatty acid binding protein produced by Aphidius ervi teratocytes
    Journal of Insect Physiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Silvia Caccia, Patrizia Falabella, Francesco Pennacchio, M Casartelli, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda De Eguileor, B Giordana

    Abstract:

    Abstract Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is an endophagous parasitoid of various aphid species, including Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera, Aphididae), the model host used in the present study. Parasitized hosts show a marked increase of their nutritional suitability for the developing parasitoid larvae. This alteration of the biochemical and metabolic profile is due to a castration process mediated by the combined action of the venom, injected at the oviposition, and of the teratocytes, cells deriving from the dissociation of the embryonic membrane. Teratocytes produce and release in the host haemocoel two parasitism-specific proteins, which are of crucial importance for the development of their sister larvae. One of the proteins is a fatty acid binding protein (Ae-FABP), which shows a high affinity for C14–C18 saturated fatty acids (FAs) and for oleic and arachidonic acids. To better define the possible nutritional role of this protein, we have studied its immunolocalization profile in vivo and the impact on FA uptake by the epidermal and midgut epithelia of A. ervi larvae. During the exponential growth of A. ervi larvae, Ae-FABP is distributed around discrete lipid particles, which are abundantly present in the haemocoel of parasitized host aphids and in the midgut lumen of parasitoid larvae. Moreover, a strong immunodetection signal is evident on the surface of the two larval epithelia involved in nutrient absorption: the parasitoid midgut epithelium and the external epidermal layer. These two epithelia can effectively absorb radiolabelled myristic acid, but the FA transport rates are not affected by the presence in the medium of Ae-FABP. The protein appears to act essentially as a vector in the host haemolymph, transferring FAs from the digestion sites of host lipids to the growing parasitoid larvae. These data indicate that the proteins produced by A. ervi teratocytes may play complementary roles in the nutritional exploitation of the host.

Emilio Guerrieri – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Unintended effects of a Phytophtora-resistant cisgenic potato clone on the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and its parasitoid Aphidius ervi
    Journal of Pest Science, 2018
    Co-Authors: P. Cascone, M. Radkova, S. Arpaia, S. Errico, L. A. P. Lotz, R. A. Magarelli, D. Djilianov, Emilio Guerrieri

    Abstract:

    Genetically modified (GM) plants may show unintended differences compared to the original varieties, due to the modification process. Such differences might in some cases affect non-target organisms linked to the crop into an agro-ecosystem. In this paper, we aimed to study interactions of two blight-resistant GM potato clones with the aphid species Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, a non-target arthropod frequently feeding on potato plants and one of the major pests of that crop. One of the potato events used in our experiments caused an increased fertility of the aphids in the first generation, and consequently, a positive effect on the growth of the aphid population was estimated. When a second generation of the aphid was reared on potato leaves of the same GM event, differences in aphid fertility were no longer observed. Behavioural studies conducted in a wind tunnel using the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday indicated that neither of the two tested GM varieties had a significant effect on the attractiveness of potato plants towards the parasitoid . In planta tests proved to be sensitive protocols to detect unintended effects on a non-target arthropod; experimental results, however, indicate that these effects are not expected to be biologically relevant in this tritrophic system, if these GM events become available for commercial use in the future.

  • flight behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi hymenoptera braconidae in response to plant and host volatiles
    European Journal of Entomology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Emilio Guerrieri, Francesco Pennacchio, E Tremblay

    Abstract:

    The flight behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been studied in a wind tunnel, in response to the following natural odour sources: broad bean plants infested with Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) (PHC, plant-host complex), damaged broad bean plants from which the aphids were removed (HDP, host damaged plants), aphids (H, host) and uninfested broad bean plants (P, plant). The most attractive odour sources were PHC and HDP, which both stimulated a similar high number of oriented straight flights. In contrast, H and P were much less attractive and did not seem to be important in the long range attraction of the parasitoids.

  • Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to tomato plant volatiles
    Chemoecology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Raffaele Sasso, L. Iodice, Christine M. Woodcock, John Anthony Pickett, Emilio Guerrieri

    Abstract:

    Flight responses of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi to tomato volatiles have recently demonstrated that different plant stresses can lead to increases in attractiveness for this parasitoid. For example, infestation of tomato plants by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae results in the overexpression of defensive genes, as well as the release of volatile compounds that attract aphid parasitoids. Here, we determine which of the induced compounds elicit a significant electrophysiological response from parasitoid antennae. Compounds shown to be detected at the antennal level were then tested at a range of doses in a wind tunnel assay. A significant electroantennogram response was demonstrated for three compounds, (8 S ,9 R )-( E )-caryophyllene, methyl salicylate, and ( Z )-3-hexen-1-ol, over four concentrations. These compounds proved to be significantly attractive in the wind tunnel at a rate not always proportionally dependent upon the dose. The practical implications of these findings are discussed in the framework of sustainable control for pest aphids in agriculture.

Hermann M Niemeyer – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • male wing fanning by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi hymenoptera braconidae produces a courtship song
    Bulletin of Entomological Research, 2011
    Co-Authors: C A Villagra, Carlos F Pinto, M Penna, Hermann M Niemeyer

    Abstract:

    We, herein, report evidence that wing fanning by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) constitutes a courtship song. Complete removal of the forewings or only the distal half of them reduced male copulation success in comparison to intact males. Males that achieved copulation within the observation period produced wing fanning at a higher rate than males that did not copulate. Playback of wing fanning sound altered the behaviour of virgin females, increasing the time they devoted to grooming, as compared with subjects that were exposedto silence or white noise. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the acoustic dimension of the sensory modalities employed by this aphid parasitoid in sexual signalling.

  • olfactory conditioning in mate searching by the parasitoid Aphidius ervi hymenoptera braconidae
    Bulletin of Entomological Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Cristian A Villagra, Rodrigo A Vasquez, Hermann M Niemeyer

    Abstract:

    Despite the fact that insect learning capacity has been broadly demonstrated, the role that this process plays during mate searching has been scarcely explored. We studied whether the sexual behaviour of a male parasitic wasp can be conditioned to the odours from two alternative host plant complexes (HPCs) present during its first copulation. The experimental subjects were newly emerged males of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, and two alternative HPCs (alfalfa or wheat). In the training protocol, copulation experience corresponded to an unconditioning stimulus and HPC odours to the conditioning stimuli. The initial (just after eclosion) and trained responses were assessed in a glass Y-olfactometer. The results showed that neither alfalfa HPC nor wheat HPC stimuli elicited sexualrelated behaviours in initial male responses. Conversely, both HPCs triggered strong attraction and wing fanning courtship behaviour in trained responses when the male was exposed to a female plus HPC during training. In males trained with females plus a given HPC but tested with the alternative HPC in the olfactometer, trained response showed a similar trend to the non-associative treatments. Hence, through learning, the olfactory stimulus context present during copulation could become a predictive cue for further mate searching. These results are discussed in terms of parasitic wasp ecology and host fidelity.

  • increased xylem ingestion and decreased phloem ingestion in the aphid acyrthosiphon pisum hemiptera aphididae parasitised by Aphidius ervi hymenoptera braconidae
    European Journal of Endocrinology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Claudio C Ramirez, Cristian A Villagra, Hermann M Niemeyer

    Abstract:

    The effects of parasitisation by Aphidius ervi on the feeding behaviour of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum were studied. There was progressive increase in the time devoted to xylem ingestion (G waveform) and concomitant decrease in time devoted to phloem ingestion (E2 waveform) in parasitized relative to unparasitized aphids, as the time from parasitisation increased. These changes are interpreted as a way aphids compensate for metabolic changes occurring during parasitisation.