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Stephen R Downie – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Expansion and Contraction of the Chloroplast Inverted Repeat in Apiaceae Subfamily Apioideae
    Systematic Botany, 2020
    Co-Authors: Gregory M Plunkett, Stephen R Downie

    Abstract:

    Abstract Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction site maps for 113 species of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and the allied families Araliaceae and Pittosporaceae were constructed for two enzymes and examined for variation in position of JLB, the junction between the large single copy and inverted repeat regions that is typically contained within the ribosomal protein S10 operon. With the exception of one large clade in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae, all species possess a JLB indistinguishable from that found in the vast majority of angiosperms. Within this large clade, however, at least one expansion and seven different contractions of the IR relative to the tobacco JLB were detected, each ranging in size from ∼1–16 kb. Five of the junction shifts are parsimony informative, and three support major clades delimited in earlier phylogenetic studies. In light of cladograms based on previous studies of restriction site and DNA sequencing data, the IR appears to have expanded and contracted a minimum of ten times during t…

  • Cryptotaenia (Apiaceae, Oenantheae): an appraisal using molecular data
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Krzysztof Spalik, Stephen R Downie

    Abstract:

    Aim The angiosperm genus Cryptotaenia (family Apiaceae, tribe Oenantheae) exhibits an anomalous distribution pattern, with five of its eight species being narrow endemics geographically isolated from their presumed relatives. We examined the monophyly of the genus and ascertained the phylogenetic placements of its constituent members in order to explain their distribution patterns.

  • new combinations in lomatium Apiaceae subfamily apioideae
    Phytotaxa, 2017
    Co-Authors: Mary Ann Feist, Stephen R Downie, Gregory M Plunkett, James F Smith, Donald H Mansfield, Mark Darrach, Richard P Mcneill, Barbara L Wilson

    Abstract:

    Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses indicate that many of the perennial endemic genera of North American Apiaceae are either polyphyletic or nested within paraphyletic groups. In light of these results, taxonomic changes are needed to ensure that ongoing efforts to prepare state, regional, and continental floristic treatments of Apiaceae reflect recent findings. Thus, six new combinations are made to accommodate the movement of five taxa from their current assignment into the genus Lomatium and the elevation of one variety of Lomatium to the level of species; Lomatium lithosolamans, Lomatium tenuissimum, Lomatium fusiformis, Lomatium linearifolium, Lomatium multifidum, and Lomatium planosum .

Gregory M Plunkett – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Expansion and Contraction of the Chloroplast Inverted Repeat in Apiaceae Subfamily Apioideae
    Systematic Botany, 2020
    Co-Authors: Gregory M Plunkett, Stephen R Downie

    Abstract:

    Abstract Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction site maps for 113 species of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and the allied families Araliaceae and Pittosporaceae were constructed for two enzymes and examined for variation in position of JLB, the junction between the large single copy and inverted repeat regions that is typically contained within the ribosomal protein S10 operon. With the exception of one large clade in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae, all species possess a JLB indistinguishable from that found in the vast majority of angiosperms. Within this large clade, however, at least one expansion and seven different contractions of the IR relative to the tobacco JLB were detected, each ranging in size from ∼1–16 kb. Five of the junction shifts are parsimony informative, and three support major clades delimited in earlier phylogenetic studies. In light of cladograms based on previous studies of restriction site and DNA sequencing data, the IR appears to have expanded and contracted a minimum of ten times during t…

  • new combinations in lomatium Apiaceae subfamily apioideae
    Phytotaxa, 2017
    Co-Authors: Mary Ann Feist, Stephen R Downie, Gregory M Plunkett, James F Smith, Donald H Mansfield, Mark Darrach, Richard P Mcneill, Barbara L Wilson

    Abstract:

    Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses indicate that many of the perennial endemic genera of North American Apiaceae are either polyphyletic or nested within paraphyletic groups. In light of these results, taxonomic changes are needed to ensure that ongoing efforts to prepare state, regional, and continental floristic treatments of Apiaceae reflect recent findings. Thus, six new combinations are made to accommodate the movement of five taxa from their current assignment into the genus Lomatium and the elevation of one variety of Lomatium to the level of species; Lomatium lithosolamans, Lomatium tenuissimum, Lomatium fusiformis, Lomatium linearifolium, Lomatium multifidum, and Lomatium planosum .

  • The phylogenetic significance of the carpophore in Apiaceae
    Annals of Botany, 2012
    Co-Authors: Gregory M Plunkett, Patricia M. Tilney, Porter P. Lowry

    Abstract:

    † Background and aims Fruit structural characters have traditionally been important in the taxonomy of the family Apiaceae. Previous investigations using a limited number of taxa have shown that the carpophore may be especially useful in helping to circumscribe subfamily Azorelloideae. The present study examines, for the first time, carpophore structure in 92 species from 43 genera, representing all subfamilies of Apiaceae, and including all genera assigned to subfamily Azorelloideae. Phylogenetic interpretations are made for the first time, using all available information, and a standard terminology is proposed to describe the various character states found in carpophores. † Methods Carpophore structure was studied in detail using light microscopy. † Key Results Carpophores, when present, may be categorized into two main groups (B and C) based mainly on the arrangement of the vascular bundles in transverse section, and further divided into six sub-types according to the length of the carpophore (short in B1 and C1) and whether they are entire (B1‐B3 and C1) or bifurcate (B4 and C2). Free carpophores are absent in subfamily Mackinlayoideae, and in tribes Lichtensteinieae and Phlyctidocarpeae, which have two opposite vascular bundles (Group A). Entire carpophores with one or two vascular bundles, or bifurcate carpophores with lateral vascular bundles (arranged side by side within the commissural plane), are the main types characterizing Azorelloideae. The short, hygroscopic carpophores found in Choritaenia are unique in Apiaceae and provide additional evidence for the exclusion of this genus from Azorelloideae. Carpophore type C2 is typical for most Apioideae sensu lato (exceptions are, for example, Arctopus and Alepidea, which have type B2). † Conclusions A single carpophore and ventral vascular bundles not forming free carpophores are proposed to be the ancestral conditions in Apiaceae, while bifurcate carpophores with opposite vascular bundles are the derived state, present in most Apioideae. Secondary reductions seem to have occurred in several unrelated lineages in all major groups, e.g. many Azorelloideae, several protoapioids (including nearly all members of the tribe Saniculeae) and 29 euapioid genera (e.g. some Oenantheae).

Caio P Fernandes – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) oils
    Essential Oils in Food Preservation Flavor and Safety, 2015
    Co-Authors: Leandro Rocha, Caio P Fernandes

    Abstract:

    Pimpinella anisum, commonly known as aniseed, is one of the oldest species used by people, being cultivated in Egypt and later in Greece, Rome, and the Middle East. Anise has white flowers and yellow-brown or green-brown fruits, which contain not less than 2% (w/w) of essential oil. Egypt and Spain are the world’s biggest producers of this essential oil. Its fruits and essential oil are widely used in the food industry as a flavoring, antioxidant, antispoilage agent, and preservative in many products, such as candies, sweets, toffees, and beverages. Many countries around the Mediterranean region, such as Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, and France, have traditional alcoholic beverages produced with P. anisum, such as anis, arak, pastis, ouzo, sambuca, zivania, and raki. This chapter provides relevant information regarding this species in the food industry context.