Apteronotus leptorhynchus - Explore the Science & Experts | ideXlab

Scan Science and Technology

Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies

Apteronotus leptorhynchus

The Experts below are selected from a list of 897 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Gunther K H Zupanc – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • development of a sexual dimorphism in a central pattern generator driving a rhythmic behavior the role of glia mediated potassium buffering in the pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    Developmental Neurobiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Gunther K H Zupanc

    Abstract:

    Central pattern generators play a critical role in the neural control of rhythmic behaviors. One of their characteristic features is the ability to modulate the oscillatory output. An important yet little-studied type of modulation involves the generation of oscillations that are sexually dimorphic in frequency. In the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, the pacemaker nucleus serves as a central pattern generator that drives the electric organ discharge of the fish in a one-to-one fashion. Males discharge at higher frequencies than females-a sexual dimorphism that develops under the influence of steroid hormones. The two principal neurons that constitute the oscillatory network of the pacemaker nucleus are the pacemaker and relay cells. Whereas the number and size of the pacemaker and relay cells are sexually monomorphic, pronounced sex-dependent differences exist in the morphology, and subcellular properties of astrocytes, which form a syncytium closely associated with these neurons. In females, compared to males, the astrocytic syncytium covers a larger area surrounding the pacemaker and relay cells and exhibits higher levels of expression of connexin-43 expression. The latter indicates a strong gap-junction coupling of the individual cells within the syncytium. It is hypothesized that these sex-specific differences result in an increased capacity for buffering of extracellular potassium ions, thereby lowering the potassium equilibrium potential, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in the oscillation frequency. This hypothesis has received strong support from simulations based on computational models of individual neurons and the whole neural network of the pacemaker nucleus.

  • calbindin d28k expression in spinal electromotoneurons of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus during adult development and regeneration
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A-neuroethology Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 2019
    Co-Authors: Antonia G Vitalo, Iulian Ilies, Gunther K H Zupanc

    Abstract:

    Additive neurogenesis, the net increase in neuronal numbers by addition of new nerve cells to existing tissue, forms the basis for indeterminate spinal cord growth in brown ghost knifefish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus). Among the cells generated through the activity of adult neural stem cells are electromotoneurons, whose axons constitute the electric organ of this weakly electric fish. Electromotoneuron development is organized along a caudo-rostral gradient, with the youngest and smallest of these cells located near the caudal end of the spinal cord. Electromotoneurons start expressing calbindin-D28k when their somata have reached diameters of approximately 10 μm, and they continue expression after they have grown to a final size of about 50 μm. Calbindin-D28k expression is significantly increased in young neurons generated in response to injury. Immunohistochemical staining against caspase-3 revealed that electromotoneurons in both intact and regenerating spinal cord are significantly less likely to undergo apoptosis than the average spinal cord cell. We hypothesize that expression of calbindin-D28k protects electromotoneurons from cell death; and that the evolutionary development of such a neuroprotective mechanism has been driven by the indispensability of electromotoneurons in the fish’s electric behavior, and by the high size-dependent costs associated with their production or removal upon cell death.

  • dynamic neuron glia interactions in an oscillatory network controlling behavioral plasticity in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    Frontiers in Physiology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Gunther K H Zupanc

    Abstract:

    The involvement of glial cells in the regulation of physiological functions is being increasingly recognized, yet their role in plasticity of neural oscillators has remained largely elusive. An excellent model system to address the latter function is the pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. This brainstem oscillator drives the fish’s electric organ discharge in a one-to-one fashion, with median frequencies of 880 Hz in males and 740 Hz in females. Morphometric analysis of the pacemaker nucleus has shown that astrocytes outnumber mature neurons seven-fold, and oscillator neurons even two-hundred-fold. A similar dominance of astrocytes occurs among the adult-born cells that differentiate into glia and neurons. The astrocytes form a dense meshwork of cells interconnected by gap junctions. The degree of association of astrocytic fibers with the neural oscillator cells, and the gap-junction coupling between individual astrocytes, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, which parallels the sexual dimorphisms in the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus, and ultimately in the electric organ discharge of the fish. It is hypothesized that the dynamics in astroglial structure mediate differences in the capacity to buffer potassium, which increases during the generation of action potentials. These differences, in turn, affect the excitability of the neural oscillator cells, and thus the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus. Comparison of the pacemaker nucleus with other brain oscillators suggests that modulation of the output activity is one of the chief functions of the interaction of glia with the neural oscillator cells.

Leonard Maler – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Stimulus-induced up states in the dorsal pallium of a weakly electric fish
    Journal of Neurophysiology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Stephen Benjamin Elliott, Leonard Maler

    Abstract:

    We investigated the response of putative novelty-detecting neurons in the pallium of an electric fish to electrosensory and acoustic stimuli. Extracellular and whole cell patch recordings were made from neurons in the dorsal pallial nucleus (DD) of Apteronotus leptorhynchus. DD neurons were typically quiescent and exhibited hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials. Stimulation induced, with a variable long latency, rapid though transient depolarization and spike discharge. The transition between resting and depolarized/spiking states resembled the transition to Up states seen in mammalian telencephalic neurons.

  • long term recognition memory of individual conspecifics is associated with telencephalic expression of egr 1 in the electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Erik Harveygirard, William Ellis, Martin Cuddy, Jessica Tweedle, Joel Ironstone, Leonard Maler

    Abstract:

    Primates and songbirds can learn to recognize individual conspecifics based on complex sensory cues; this requires a large, highly differentiated dorsal telencephalon. Here we show that the electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus can learn to recognize individual conspecifics based on a simple cue, the beat frequency of their summed sinusoidal electric organ discharges (EOD). Male fish produce transient communication signals (chirps) in response to mimic EODs. The chirp response habituates over repeated stimulus presentations within one experimental session, continues to habituate over successive daily sessions and is nearly extinguished after 5–7 days. Habituation of the chirp response was specific to the presented beat frequency. The conversion of short- to long-term habituation could be disrupted by cooling the head 30 minutes after the daily habituation trials. Consolidation of long-term memory in mammals is thought to involve induced expression of an immediate early gene, Egr-1. We cloned the Apteronotid homolog of the Egr-1 gene and found that chirp-evoking stimuli induced strong expression of its mRNA within the dorsal (Dd), central (DC), and lateral (DL) subdivisions of the dorsal telencephalon. Interestingly, the dorsolateral region is hypothesized to be homologous to the amniote hippocampal formation. We conclude that A. leptorhynchus can learn to identify individual conspecifics based on their EOD frequency and can remember these frequencies for several days. We hypothesize that this form of learning, as in primates and songbirds, requires a subset of dorsal telencephalic areas and involves a consolidation-like process that includes the expression of the transcription factor AptEgr-1. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:2666–2692, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • differential distribution of sk channel subtypes in the brain of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Lee D Ellis, Leonard Maler, Robert J. Dunn

    Abstract:

    Calcium signals in vertebrate neurons can induce hyperpolarizing membrane responses through the activation of Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Of these, small conductance (SK) channels regulate neuronal responses through the generation of the medium after-hyperpolarization (mAHP). We have previously shown that an SK channel (AptSK2) contributes to signal processing in the electrosensory system of Apteronotus leptorhynchus. It was shown that for pyramidal neurons in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), AptSK2 expression selectively decreases responses to low-frequency signals. The localization of all the SK subunits throughout the brain of Apteronotus then became of substantial interest. We have now cloned two additional SK channel subunits from Apteronotus and determined the expression patterns of all three AptSK subunits throughout the brain. In situ hybridization experiments have revealed that, as in mammalian systems, the AptSK1 and 2 channels showed a partially overlapping expression pattern, whereas the AptSK3 channel was expressed in different brain areas. The AptSK1 and 2 channels were the primary subunits found in the major electrosensory processing areas. Immunohistochemistry further revealed distinct compartmentalization of the AptSK1 and 2 channels in the ELL. AptSK1 was localized to the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons, whereas AptSK2 channels are primarily somatic. The distinct expression patterns of all three AptSK channels may reflect subtype-specific contributions to neuronal function, and the high homology between subtypes from a number of species suggests that the functional roles for each channel subtype are conserved from early vertebrate evolution. J. Comp. Neurol. 507:1964–1978, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Kent D Dunlap – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • reduced brain cell proliferation following somatic injury is buffered by social interaction in electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    Developmental Neurobiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Kent D Dunlap, Margarita M Vergara, Joshua H Corbo

    Abstract:

    In many species, the negative effects of aversive stimuli are mitigated by social interactions, a phenomenon termed social buffering. In one form of social buffering, social interactions reduce the inhibition of brain cell proliferation during stress. Indirect predator stimuli (e.g., olfactory or visual cues) are known to decrease brain cell proliferation, but little is known about how somatic injury, as might occur from direct predator encounter, affects brain cell proliferation and whether this response is influenced by conspecific interactions. Here, we assessed the social buffering of brain cell proliferation in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, by examining the separate and combined effects of tail injury and social interactions. We mimicked a predator-induced injury by amputating the caudal tail tip, exposed fish to paired interactions that varied in timing, duration and recovery period, and measured brain cell proliferation and the degree of social affiliation. Paired social interaction mitigated the negative effects of tail amputation on cell proliferation in the forebrain but not the midbrain. Social interaction either before or after tail amputation reduced the effect of tail injury and continuous interaction both before and after caused an even greater buffering effect. Social interaction buffered the proliferation response after short-term (1 d) or long-term recovery (7 d) from tail amputation. This is the first report of social buffering of brain cell proliferation in a non-mammalian model. Despite the positive association between social stimuli and brain cell proliferation, we found no evidence that fish affiliate more closely following tail injury.

  • reduced brain cell proliferation following somatic injury is buffered by social interaction in electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    Developmental Neurobiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Kent D Dunlap, Margarita M Vergara, Joshua H Corbo

    Abstract:

    In many species, the negative effects of aversive stimuli are mitigated by social interactions, a phenomenon termed social buffering. In one form of social buffering, social interactions reduce the inhibition of brain cell proliferation during stress. Indirect predator stimuli (e.g. olfactory or visual cues) are known to decrease brain cell proliferation, but little is known about how somatic injury, as might occur from direct predator encounter, affects brain cell proliferation and whether this response is influenced by conspecific interactions. Here, we assessed social buffering of brain cell proliferation in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, by examining the separate and combined effects of tail injury and social interactions. We mimicked a predator-induced injury by amputating the caudal tail tip, exposed fish to paired interactions that varied in timing, duration and recovery period, and measured brain cell proliferation and the degree of social affiliation. Paired social interaction mitigated the negative effects of tail amputation on cell proliferation in the forebrain but not the midbrain. Social interaction either before or after tail amputation reduced the effect of tail injury, and continuous interaction both before and after caused an even greater buffering effect. Social interaction buffered the proliferation response after short-term (1 d) or long-term recovery (7 d) from tail amputation. This is the first report of social buffering of brain cell proliferation in any non-mammal. Despite the positive association between social stimuli and brain cell proliferation, we found no evidence that fish affiliate more closely following tail injury.

  • simulated predator stimuli reduce brain cell proliferation in two electric fish species brachyhypopomus gauderio and Apteronotus leptorhynchus
    The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Kent D Dunlap, Geoffrey Keane, Michael Ragazzi, Elise Lasky, Vielka L. Salazar

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT The brain structure of many animals is influenced by their predators, but the cellular processes underlying this brain plasticity are not well understood. Previous studies showed that electric fish (Brachyhypopomus occidentalis) naturally exposed to high predator (Rhamdia quelen) density and tail injury had reduced brain cell proliferation compared with individuals facing few predators and those with intact tails. However, these field studies described only correlations between predator exposure and cell proliferation. Here, we used a congener Brachyhypopomus gauderio and another electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus to experimentally test the hypothesis that exposure to a predator stimulus and tail injury causes alterations in brain cell proliferation. To simulate predator exposure, we either amputated the tail followed by short-term (1 day) or long-term (17–18 days) recovery or repeatedly chased intact fish with a plastic rod over a 7 day period. We measured cell proliferation (PCNA+ cell density) in the telencephalon and diencephalon, and plasma cortisol, which commonly mediates stress-induced changes in brain cell proliferation. In both species, either tail amputation or simulated predator chase decreased cell proliferation in the telencephalon in a manner resembling the effect of predators in the field. In A. leptorhynchus, cell proliferation decreased drastically in the short term after tail amputation and partially rebounded after long-term recovery. In B. gauderio, tail amputation elevated cortisol levels, but repeated chasing had no effect. In A. leptorhynchus, tail amputation elevated cortisol levels in the short term but not in the long term. Thus, predator stimuli can cause reductions in brain cell proliferation, but the role of cortisol is not clear.