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Emmanuel J P Douzery – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • What is a Suiforme (Artiodactyla)?: Contribution of Cranioskeletal and Mitochondrial DNA Data
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 1998
    Co-Authors: Claudine Montgelard, Stephane Ducrocq, Emmanuel J P Douzery


    Abstract Suiformes (Artiodactyla) traditionally includes three families: Suidae, Tayassuidae, and Hippopotamidae but the monophyly of this suborder has recently been questioned from molecular data. A maximum parsimony analysis of molecular, morphological, and combined data was performed on the same set of taxa including representatives of the three Artiodactyla suborders (Suiformes, Ruminantia, and Tylopoda) and Perissodactyla as outgroup. Mitochondrial (cytochromeband 12S rRNA) sequence comparisons support the monophyly of Suina (Suidae and Tayassuidae) and Ancodonta (Hippopotamidae) but not the monophyly of Suiformes. Inversely, our preliminary morphological analysis supports the monophyly of Suiformes whereas relationships among the three families are not resolved. The combined data set does not resolve the relationships between Suina, Ancodonta, and Ruminantia. These results are discussed in relation to morphological characters and paleontological data. Some improvements are suggested to clarify the morphological definition of Suiformes and relationships among them.

  • new phylogenetic perspectives on the cervidae Artiodactyla are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene
    Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 1998
    Co-Authors: Ettore Randi, Nadia Mucci, M Pierpaoli, Emmanuel J P Douzery


    The entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was compared for 11 species of the artiodactyl family Cervidae, representing all living subfamilies, i.e. the antlered Cervinae (Cervus elaphus, C…

  • phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12s rrna mitochondrial sequences
    Molecular Biology and Evolution, 1997
    Co-Authors: Claudine Montgelard, Francois Catzeflis, Emmanuel J P Douzery


    : A data set of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rDNA sequences is presented here for 17 representatives of Artiodactyla and Cetacea, together with potential outgroups (two Perissodactyla, two Carnivora, two Tethytheria, four Rodentia, and two Marsupialia). We include seven sequences not previously published from Hippopotamidae (Ancodonta) and Camelidae (Tylopoda), yielding a total of nearly 2.1 kb for both genes combined. Distance and parsimony analyses of each gene indicate that 11 clades are well supported, including the artiodactyl taxa Pecora, Ruminantia (with low 12S rRNA support), Tylopoda, Suina, and Ancodonta, as well as Cetacea, Perissodactyla, Carnivora, Tethytheria, Muridae, and Caviomorpha. Neither the cytochrome b nor the 12S rDNA genes resolve the relationships between these major clades. The combined analysis of the two genes suggests a monophyletic Cetacea +Artiodactyla clade (defined as “CetArtiodactyla“), whereas Perissodactyla, Carnivora, and Tethytheria fall outside this clade. Perissodactyla could represent the sister taxon of CetArtiodactyla, as deduced from resampling studies among outgroup lineages. CetArtiodactyla includes five major lineages: Ruminantia, Tylopoda, Suina, Ancodonta, and Cetacea, among which the phylogenetic relationships are not resolved. Thus, Suiformes do not appear to be monophyletic, justifying their split into the Suina and Ancodonta infraorders. An association between Cetacea and Hippopotamidae is supported by the cytochrome b gene but not by the 12S rRNA gene. Calculation of divergence dates suggests that the CetArtiodactyla could have diverged from other Ferungulata about 60 MYA.

J L Williams – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • bovine microsatellite loci are highly conserved in red deer cervus elaphus sika deer cervus nippon and soay sheep ovis aries
    Animal Genetics, 1998
    Co-Authors: Jon Slate, David W Coltman, Simon J Goodman, I Maclean, Josephine M Pemberton, J L Williams


    We tested 174 bovine microsatellite primer pairs for use in a primitive breed of sheep and two species of deer. Of 173 markers, 127 (73.4%) gave a product in Soay sheep (Ovis aries) of which 54 (42.5%) were polymorphic. One hundred and twenty-nine of 174 (74.1%) markers gave a product in red deer (Cervus elaphus) of which 72 (55.8%) were polymorphic. In sika deer (Cervus nippon) 126 of 171 (73.7%) microsatellite primers gave a product with 47 (37.3%) polymorphic. The proportion of bovine microsatellite loci conserved across artiodactyl species was significantly greater in this study than previously reported. Reasons for this high degree of microsatellite conservation are discussed. We suggest that a high resolution comparative map of the artiodactyls can be constructed using microsatellites.

Ulfur Arnason – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The mitochondrial genome of the sperm whale and a new molecular reference for estimating eutherian divergence dates
    Journal of Molecular Evolution, 2000
    Co-Authors: Ulfur Arnason, Anette Gullberg, Solveig Gretarsdottir, B Ursing, Axel Janke


    Extant cetaceans are systematically divided into two suborders: Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales). In this study, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of an odontocete, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), and included it in phylogenetic analyses together with the previously sequenced complete mtDNAs of two mysticetes (the fin and blue whales) and a number of other mammals, including five artiodactyls (the hippopotamus, cow, sheep, alpaca, and pig). The most strongly supported cetartiodactyl relationship was: outgroup,((pig, al- paca),((cow, sheep),(hippopotamus,(sperm whale,(ba- leen whales))))). As in previous analyses of complete mtDNAs, the sister-group relationship between the hippopotamus and the whales received strong support, making both Artiodactyla and Suiformes (pigs, peccaries, and hippopotamuses) paraphyletic. In addition, the analyses identified a sister-group relationship between Suina (the pig) and Tylopoda (the alpaca), although this relationship was not strongly supported. The paleontological records of both mysticetes and odontocetes extend into the Oligocene, suggesting that the mysticete and odontocete lineages diverged 32–34 million years before present (MYBP). Use of this divergence date and the complete mtDNAs of the sperm whale and the two baleen whales allowed the establishment of a new molecular reference, O/M-33, for dating other eutherian divergences. There was a general consistency between O/M-33 and the two previously established eutherian references, A/C-60 and E/R-50. Cetacean (whale) origin, i.e., the divergence between the hippopotamus and the cetaceans, was dated to ≈55 MYBP, while basal artiodactyl divergences were dated to?65 MYBP. Molecular estimates of Tertiary eutherian divergences were consistent with the fossil record.

  • the complete mitochondrial dna sequence of the greater indian rhinoceros rhinoceros unicornis and the phylogenetic relationship among carnivora perissodactyla and Artiodactyla cetacea
    Molecular Biology and Evolution, 1996
    Co-Authors: Xiufeng Xu, Axel Janke, Ulfur Arnason


    The sequence (16,829 nt) of the complete mitochondrial genome of the greater Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, was determined. Like other perissodactyls studied (horse and donkey) the rhinoceros demonstrates length variation (heteroplasmy) associated with different numbers of repetitive motifs in the control region. The 16,829-nt variety of the molecule includes 36 identical control region motifs. The evolution of individual peptide-coding genes was examined by comparison with a distantly related perissodactyl, the horse, and the relationships among the orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla (+ Cetacea) were examined on the basis of concatenated sequences of 12 mitochondrial peptide-coding genes. The phylogenetic analyses grouped Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla (+ Cetacea) into a superordinal clade and within this clade a sister group relationship was recognized between Carnivora and Perissodactyla to the exclusion of Artiodactyla (+ Cetacea). On the basis of the molecular difference between the rhinoceros and the horse and by applying as a reference the Artiodactyl/Cetacean divergence set at 60 million years ago (MYA), the evolutionary divergence between the families Rhinocerotidae and Equidae was dated to approximate to 50 MYA. (Less)

  • cytochrome b nucleotide sequences and the identification of five primary lineages of extant cetaceans
    Molecular Biology and Evolution, 1996
    Co-Authors: Ulfur Arnason, Anette Gullberg


    : Relationships among and within baleen and toothed whales were examined using the complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Based on parsimony analyses of conservative nucleotide substitutions, five primary evolutionary lineages of extant cetaceans were identified, one represented by baleen whales (Mysticeti) and four represented by odontocetes (toothed whales). Based on the most comprehensive representation of taxa, both cetaceans and artiodactyls, the most parsimonious relationship among the five lineages is (Mysticeti, Odontoceti (Platanistoidea (Physeteroidea (Ziphioidea (Delphinida))))). This relationship, however, is labile and sensitive to ingroup representation and the choice of outgroup. The short nodes among the five cetacean lineages suggest that the divergence among these lineages occurred over a narrow time period, a finding consistent with the limited fossil evidence that indicates a major cetacean radiation 30-34 Mya. The level of divergence among the five cetacean lineages, and that seen between cetaceans and artiodactyls, suggests that cetaceans and artiodactyls had a common ancestor approximately 60 Mya.