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Autoimmunity

The Experts below are selected from a list of 125694 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Yehuda Shoenfeld – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The kaleidoscope of Autoimmunity: multiple autoimmune syndromes and familial Autoimmunity.
    Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Juan-manuel Anaya, Rodrigo Corena, John Castiblanco, Adriana Rojas-villarraga, Yehuda Shoenfeld

    Abstract:

    Three related lines of evidence sustain the common origin for autoimmune diseases (ADs). First, the clinical evidence corresponding to the kaleidoscope of Autoimmunity, which is the co-occurrence of various ADs within an individual or co-occurrence within members of a nuclear family. Second, the physiopathologic evidence indicating that the pathologic mechanisms might be similar among ADs. Last, the genetic evidence indicating that autoimmune phenotypes could represent pleiotropic outcomes of nonspecific disease genes. The two conditions that better illustrate the kaleidoscope of Autoimmunity are multiple autoimmune syndromes and familial Autoimmunity. The multiple autoimmune syndromes consist of the presence of three or more well-defined autoimmune conditions in a single patient. The familial Autoimmunity is defined as the presence of diverse ADs on multiple members of a nuclear family. Herein, both the multiple autoimmune syndromes and familial Autoimmunity are discussed and various epidemiological fact…

  • Progestogens and Autoimmunity
    Progestogens in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Abraham Tsur, Grant C. Hughes, Yehuda Shoenfeld

    Abstract:

    The immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones are a major factor leading to sexual dimorphism of the human immune system and to the higher susceptibility of females to autoimmune diseases. Data regarding the immunomodulatory effect of estrogens are abundant, but far less is known about progestogens. Recent data indicate that female sex hormones influence immunity and Autoimmunity in very different ways: estrogens generally enhance the immune response and increase susceptibility to Autoimmunity, while progestogens protect against Autoimmunity.

  • The Decade of Autoimmunity – Prolactin and Autoimmunity.
    Frontiers in Immunology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Vânia Vieira Borba, Gisele Zandman-goddard, Yehuda Shoenfeld

    Abstract:

    The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of Autoimmunity. Sex hormones, are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of Autoimmunity among women at child-bearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also deal with complex endocrine alterations. Hormonal homeostasis is known to exert a crucial influence in achieving a competent and healthy immune system. Prolactin has a bioactive function acting as a hormone and a cytokine. It interferes with immune system modulation, mainly inhibiting the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes. Likewise, hyperprolactinemia has been described in relation to the pathogenesis and activity of several autoimmune disorders. Dopamine is an effective inhibitor of prolactin secretion due either a direct influence on the hypophysis or stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus, arousing the release of the prolactin inhibitory factor. Hence, dopamine agonists have proven to offer clinical benefits among autoimmune patients and represents a promising therapy to be explored. In this review, we attempt to provide a critical overview of the link between prolactin, autoimmune diseases and motherhood.

Marian Rewers – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Gluten intake and risk of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study In the Young (DAISY)
    Endocrine, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jacqueline A. Gardner, Randi K. Johnson, Fran Dong, Michelle Hoffman, Andrea K. Steck, Brigitte I. Frohnert, Marian Rewers, Jill M. Norris

    Abstract:

    Purpose Autoimmune diseases co-occur, perhaps due to common risk factors. The age at gluten introduction and gluten intake in early childhood has been associated with the Autoimmunity preceding celiac disease (CD) and type-1 diabetes (T1D). We explored their associations with the development of thyroid Autoimmunity. Methods DAISY has prospectively followed children at increased risk for T1D and CD since 1993. During follow-up, 107 children developed thyroid Autoimmunity, defined as positivity for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase on at least two study visits. Age at gluten introduction was ascertained from food history interviews every 3 months until 15 months of age. Gluten intake (g/day) at age 1–2 years was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Results From multivariable Cox regression, there was no association between the age of gluten introduction nor the amount of gluten intake and development of thyroid Autoimmunity. However, females (hazard ratio = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.27) and cases of islet Autoimmunity (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.39, 3.50) were significantly more likely to develop thyroid Autoimmunity, while exposure to environmental tobacco smoke decreased the risk (HR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.71). Conclusions Neither the age of gluten introduction nor the amount of gluten consumed in early childhood is associated with risk of thyroid Autoimmunity.

  • Late-onset islet Autoimmunity in childhood: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY).
    Diabetologia, 2017
    Co-Authors: Brigitte I. Frohnert, Jill M. Norris, Fran Dong, Andrea K. Steck, Anna E. Barón, Marian Rewers

    Abstract:

    Aims/hypothesis
    We sought to assess the frequency, determinants and prognosis for future diabetes in individuals with islet Autoimmunity and whether these factors differ depending on the age of onset of islet Autoimmunity.

  • association of early exposure of probiotics and islet Autoimmunity in the teddy study
    JAMA Pediatrics, 2016
    Co-Authors: Ulla Uusitalo, Marian Rewers, Jimin Yang, Carin Andren Aronsson, Sandra Hummel, Martha Butterworth, Ake Lernmark, William Hagopian, Olli Simell, Jorma Toppari

    Abstract:

    Importance Probiotics have been hypothesized to affect immunologic responses to environmental exposures by supporting healthy gut microbiota and could therefore theoretically be used to prevent the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)–associated islet Autoimmunity. Objective To examine the association between supplemental probiotic use during the first year of life and islet Autoimmunity among children at increased genetic risk of T1DM. Design, Setting, and Participants In this ongoing prospective cohort study that started September 1, 2004, children from 6 clinical centers, 3 in the United States (Colorado, Georgia/Florida, and Washington) and 3 in Europe (Finland, Germany, and Sweden), were followed up for T1DM-related autoantibodies. Blood samples were collected every 3 months between 3 and 48 months of age and every 6 months thereafter to determine persistent islet Autoimmunity. Details of infant feeding, including probiotic supplementation and infant formula use, were monitored from birth using questionnaires and diaries. We applied time-to-event analysis to study the association between probiotic use and islet Autoimmunity, stratifying by country and adjusting for family history of type 1 diabetes, HLA-DR-DQ genotypes, sex, birth order, mode of delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, birth year, child’s antibiotic use, and diarrheal history, as well as maternal age, probiotic use, and smoking. Altogether 8676 infants with an eligible genotype were enrolled in the follow-up study before the age of 4 months. The final sample consisted of 7473 children with the age range of 4 to 10 years (as of October 31, 2014). Exposures Early intake of probiotics. Main Outcomes and Measures Islet Autoimmunity revealed by specific islet autoantibodies. Results Early probiotic supplementation (at the age of 0-27 days) was associated with a decreased risk of islet Autoimmunity when compared with probiotic supplementation after 27 days or no probiotic supplementation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.94). The association was accounted for by children with the DR3/4 genotype (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.74) and was absent among other genotypes (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.54). Conclusions and Relevance Early probiotic supplementation may reduce the risk of islet Autoimmunity in children at the highest genetic risk of T1DM. The result needs to be confirmed in further studies before any recommendation of probiotics use is made.

Jill M. Norris – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Gluten intake and risk of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study In the Young (DAISY)
    Endocrine, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jacqueline A. Gardner, Randi K. Johnson, Fran Dong, Michelle Hoffman, Andrea K. Steck, Brigitte I. Frohnert, Marian Rewers, Jill M. Norris

    Abstract:

    Purpose Autoimmune diseases co-occur, perhaps due to common risk factors. The age at gluten introduction and gluten intake in early childhood has been associated with the Autoimmunity preceding celiac disease (CD) and type-1 diabetes (T1D). We explored their associations with the development of thyroid Autoimmunity. Methods DAISY has prospectively followed children at increased risk for T1D and CD since 1993. During follow-up, 107 children developed thyroid Autoimmunity, defined as positivity for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase on at least two study visits. Age at gluten introduction was ascertained from food history interviews every 3 months until 15 months of age. Gluten intake (g/day) at age 1–2 years was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Results From multivariable Cox regression, there was no association between the age of gluten introduction nor the amount of gluten intake and development of thyroid Autoimmunity. However, females (hazard ratio = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.27) and cases of islet Autoimmunity (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.39, 3.50) were significantly more likely to develop thyroid Autoimmunity, while exposure to environmental tobacco smoke decreased the risk (HR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.71). Conclusions Neither the age of gluten introduction nor the amount of gluten consumed in early childhood is associated with risk of thyroid Autoimmunity.

  • Late-onset islet Autoimmunity in childhood: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY).
    Diabetologia, 2017
    Co-Authors: Brigitte I. Frohnert, Jill M. Norris, Fran Dong, Andrea K. Steck, Anna E. Barón, Marian Rewers

    Abstract:

    Aims/hypothesis
    We sought to assess the frequency, determinants and prognosis for future diabetes in individuals with islet Autoimmunity and whether these factors differ depending on the age of onset of islet Autoimmunity.