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Baylisascaris

The Experts below are selected from a list of 1155 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Kevin R Kazacos – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Baylisascaris procyonis associated meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy adult california usa
    Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2016
    Co-Authors: Charles Langelier, Michael J A Reid, Cathra Halabi, Natalie Witek, Alejandro Lariviere, Maulik P Shah, Michael R Wilson, Peter Chinhong, Vanja C Douglas, Kevin R Kazacos

    Abstract:

    After severe neurocognitive decline developed in an otherwise healthy 63-year-old man, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and enhancing lesions. The patient tested positive for antibodies to Baylisascaris spp. roundworms, was treated with albendazole and dexamethasone, and showed improvement after 3 months. Baylisascariasis should be considered for all patients with eosinophilic meningitis.

  • case report Baylisascaris procyonis and herpes simplex virus 2 coinfection presenting as ocular larva migrans with granuloma formation in a child
    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2015
    Co-Authors: Glenn J Fennelly, Kevin R Kazacos, Christina M. Coyle, Charles Grose, Joanna Dobroszycki, Norman Saffra, Louis M Weiss, Moshe Szlechter, Herbert B. Tanowitz

    Abstract:

    Abstract.
    Ocular Baylisascaris procyonis infection results from ingestion of infective eggs of B. procyonis, the raccoon ascarid. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection of the retina is the result of either primary infection or reactivated disease. Herein, we report a case of a 12-year-old female resident of the Bronx in New York City, who presented with pan-uveitis and vision loss. Initial evaluation for etiologic causes was nondiagnostic. Serology for anti-Baylisascaris procyonis antibodies in serum and vitreous fluid were both positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vitreous fluid was positive for HSV-2. Treatment with vitrectomy, albendazole, and acyclovir resulted in mild improvement of visual acuity. The atypical presentation of B. procyonis in this case, as ocular larva migrans with a peripheral granuloma and retinal detachment, underscores the importance of maintaining a high degree of suspicion for this pathogen even in non-diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) patients in urban areas. This case further illustrates that it is possible to have coexisting infections in cases of posterior uveitis.

  • Baylisascaris larva migrans
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Kevin R Kazacos, Linda A Jelicks, Herbert B. Tanowitz

    Abstract:

    : Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.).

Guangyou Yang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • molecular phylogenetics and species level systematics of Baylisascaris
    International journal for parasitology. Parasites and wildlife, 2018
    Co-Authors: Lauren Camp, Guangyou Yang, Marc R Radke, Danny M Shihabi, Christopher Pagan, Steven A Nadler

    Abstract:

    Abstract Nucleotide sequences representing nine genes and five presumptive genetic loci were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among seven Baylisascaris species, including one species with no previously available molecular data. These genes were used to test the species status of B. procyonis and B. columnaris using a coalescent approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined analysis of sequence data strongly supported monophyly of the genus and separated the species into two main clades. Clade 1 included B. procyonis, B. columnaris, and B. devosi, species hosted by musteloid carnivores. Clade 2 included B. transfuga and B. schroederi from ursids, B. ailuri, a species from the red panda (a musteloid), and B. tasmaniensis from a marsupial. Within clade 2, geographic isolates of B. transfuga, B. schroederi (from giant panda), and B. ailuri formed a strongly supported clade. In certain analyses (e.g., some single genes), B. tasmaniensis was sister to all other Baylisascaris species rather than sister to the species from ursids and red panda. Using one combination of priors corresponding to moderate population size and shallow genetic divergence, the multispecies coalescent analysis of B. procyonis and B. columnaris yielded moderate support (posterior probability 0.91) for these taxa as separate species. However, other prior combinations yielded weak or no support for delimiting these taxa as separate species. Similarly, tree topologies constrained to represent reciprocal monophyly of B. columnaris and B. procyonis individuals (topologies consistent with separate species) were significantly worse in some cases, but not others, depending on the dataset analyzed. An expanded analysis of SNPs and other genetic markers that were previously suggested to distinguish between individuals of B. procyonis and B. columnaris was made by characterization of additional individual nematodes. The results suggest that many of these SNPs do not represent fixed differences between nematodes derived from raccoon and skunk hosts.

  • cloning and characterization of a novel sigma like glutathione s transferase from the giant panda parasitic nematode Baylisascaris schroederi
    Parasites & Vectors, 2015
    Co-Authors: Xuan Zhou, Zhihe Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Xiaobin Gu, Xuerong Peng, Lin Chen, Tao Wang, Guangyou Yang

    Abstract:

    Background
    Baylisascaris schroederi, an intestinal nematode of the giant panda, is the cause of the often fatal disease, baylisascariasis. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are versatile enzymes that can affect parasite survival and parasite-host interactions and, are therefore, potential targets for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines.

  • zoonotic Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms in raccoons china
    Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2014
    Co-Authors: Xuan Zhou, Xiaobin Gu, Xuerong Peng, Tao Wang, Mei Li, Guangyou Yang

    Abstract:

    To the Editor: Baylisascaris procyonis, an intestinal roundworm that infects raccoons (Procyon lotor), causes fatal or severe neural larva migrans in animals and humans (1,2). Globally, ≈130 species of wild and domesticated animals are susceptible (2). Infections in humans typically occur in children who have the disorders pica or geophagia and ingest B. procyonis eggs in items contaminated with raccoon feces (3). Clinical manifestations include ocular disease, eosinophilic encephalitis, and eosinophilic cardiac pseudotumors; severe infection can lead to death. Since 1984, ≈24 cases of B. procyonis–related human neural larva migrans have been reported, mainly in the United States (1,3–5; K.R. Kazacos, pers. comm.). Despite few cases among humans, lack of effective treatment and widespread distribution of infected raccoons in close association with humans make B. procyonis a potentially serious public health threat (2,6). The current distribution of B. procyonis is poorly recorded in Asia (2,7), except for Japan (8). We describe B. procyonis infections among raccoons in China as part of a series of ongoing surveys of helminthic zoonoses linked to captive exotic animals in zoologic gardens (ZGs) in China.

    More than 90% of raccoons in China (n >320) are raised as exotic ornamental animals in 18 ZGs. During 2011–2013, we collected 2×308 fecal samples (i.e., 1 repeat within each sampling) from 277 raccoons in 12 randomly selected ZGs (Technical Appendix Figure 1). Samples were stored in individual plastic bags at –20°C until use. We examined raccoons (n = 31) at the Sichuan ZGs twice, in June 2012 and May 2013. We identified B. procyonis eggs in feces using morphologic and molecular analyses (1,2,9). The nuclear first internal transcribed spacer (428 bp) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1, 938 bp) genes in each sample were PCR-amplified and sequenced. B. procyonis infection was confirmed by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of both genes (7,9). We reexamined ≈60% of fecal samples to validate results. Prevalence (95% CI) was calculated for the overall population and independently for female, male, juvenile, and adult raccoons. We determined differences between the tested ZG prevalence and prevalence by sex or age of raccoons using χ2 or Fisher exact tests in SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA); p values <0.05 were considered significant. Building on egg-based morphologic characterization and internal transcribed spacer 1 and cox-1 gene-based phylogenies using neighbor-joining trees (Technical Appendix Figure 2), we found B. procyonis in raccoon feces from 5/12 ZGs (42%; 95% CI 14%–70%), including 2 in the most densely populated provinces, Henan and Sichuan. More infections were found in western than central and eastern ZGs (4/6 and 1/6, respectively; Table, Technical Appendix Figure 1) (p = 0.079). Fecal samples of 35 raccoons (13%; 95% CI 9%–17%) tested positive for B. procyonis. The mean intensity of egg shedding was 5,000 eggs per gram (range 800–11,200 eggs per gram; data not shown). No significant difference was observed in the intensity of shedding by comparing sex and age of animals, and no significant differences were noted in the mean prevalence between female and male raccoons (12% versus 14%; p = 0.677) or between adult and juvenile animals (13% versus 10%; p = 0.536). Table Prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis roundworm infections among captive raccoons, China, 2011–2013*

    This investigation documents the presence and prevalence of B. procyonis among raccoons in China. The findings imply that raccoons harboring this parasite have the potential for spreading it to humans. One reason is that captive raccoons adapt readily to humans and easily take food offered by hand; another is that communal raccoon latrine sites in ZGs are usually close to areas where humans gather, so ZG visitors may be exposed to large numbers of eggs (Technical Appendix Figure 3). These eggs can remain viable and infective for years (2), and latrines are recognized as primary sources of transmission of B. procyonis to humans (4). Current public health initiatives to prevent B. procyonis infections in humans rely on the education of veterinary and human health care professionals, who in turn inform the public (1,6,10). Thus, veterinarians, clinicians, and public health officials in China should be more informed about this pathogen, especially in regions with large raccoon populations.

    Because of a lack of clinical awareness of this illness and subsequent lack of early diagnosis and effective treatment, prevention of B. procyonis infection by education is essential. In addition, a strategy for eradication is needed. Heat, in the form of boiling water, steam-cleaning, or fire, is the optimal tool for killing B. procyonis eggs (2) and therefore can be used to decontaminate areas surrounding latrines. Within heavily contaminated areas, removing and then sterilizing the top few inches of surface soil with heat would be effective and practical (1,2). Among captive raccoon populations, particularly in China, regular deworming is also likely to be helpful in reducing novel and existing sources of infection (1–3).

    Finally, although no cases of human infection have been reported in China to our knowledge, physicians should consider including B. procyonis infections in their differential diagnoses of patients with indicative features: clinical (eosinophilic encephalitis, ocular disease), epidemiologic (raccoon exposure), radiologic (white matter disease), and laboratory results (blood and CNS eosinophilia) (1,10). This study lays the foundation for future steps to educate the population of China about B. procyonis infection and to create programs to prevent the spread of this disease to humans.

    Technical Appendix:
    Distribution of raccoons in China, morphological and molecular characterization of Baylisascaris procyonis parasitic roundworm eggs in captive raccoons in China, and the potential risk of human B. procyonis infection in China.

    Click here to view.(776K, pdf)

Herbert B. Tanowitz – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • case report Baylisascaris procyonis and herpes simplex virus 2 coinfection presenting as ocular larva migrans with granuloma formation in a child
    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2015
    Co-Authors: Glenn J Fennelly, Kevin R Kazacos, Christina M. Coyle, Charles Grose, Joanna Dobroszycki, Norman Saffra, Louis M Weiss, Moshe Szlechter, Herbert B. Tanowitz

    Abstract:

    Abstract.
    Ocular Baylisascaris procyonis infection results from ingestion of infective eggs of B. procyonis, the raccoon ascarid. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection of the retina is the result of either primary infection or reactivated disease. Herein, we report a case of a 12-year-old female resident of the Bronx in New York City, who presented with pan-uveitis and vision loss. Initial evaluation for etiologic causes was nondiagnostic. Serology for anti-Baylisascaris procyonis antibodies in serum and vitreous fluid were both positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vitreous fluid was positive for HSV-2. Treatment with vitrectomy, albendazole, and acyclovir resulted in mild improvement of visual acuity. The atypical presentation of B. procyonis in this case, as ocular larva migrans with a peripheral granuloma and retinal detachment, underscores the importance of maintaining a high degree of suspicion for this pathogen even in non-diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) patients in urban areas. This case further illustrates that it is possible to have coexisting infections in cases of posterior uveitis.

  • Baylisascaris larva migrans
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Kevin R Kazacos, Linda A Jelicks, Herbert B. Tanowitz

    Abstract:

    : Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.).

  • Baylisascaris Procyonis Induced Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis in New York City.
    Journal of Neuroparasitology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Norman A. Saffra, Jason E. Perlman, Rajen U. Desai, Kevin R Kazacos, Christina M. Coyle, Fabiana S. Machado, Sanjay Kedhar, Michael Engelbert, Herbert B. Tanowitz

    Abstract:

    Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) secondary to raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) infection has been reported in rural and suburban areas of North America and Europe with extant raccoon populations. Here, we present a case of Baylisascaris-induced DUSN from the densely populated borough of Brooklyn in New York City and alert urban ophthalmologists to consider this etiology even in areas not typically thought to be associated with endemic risk factors. Infected raccoons also occur in urban settings, and urban patients may be exposed in surrounding areas. Most patients with Baylisascaris ocular larva migrans-DUSN will not have concomitant neurologic disease; this fact and larval neurotropism are both misconceptions regarding this infection.