Scan Science and Technology
Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies
The Experts below are selected from a list of 258 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform
Joël Billieux – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
learning to lose control a process based account of Behavioral AddictionNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2020Co-Authors: Jose C Perales, Joël Billieux, Adriano Schimmenti, Daniel L. King, Javier F. Navas, Guillaume Sescousse, Vladan Starcevic, Ruth J Van HolstAbstract:
Learning psycho(bio)logy has developed a solid corpus of evidence and theory regarding behavior control modes. The present article briefly reviews that literature and its influence on recent models in which the transition from goal-directed to compulsive behavior is identified as the main process underlying substance use disorders. This literature is also relevant to non-substance addictive disorders, and serves as basis to propose a restricted definition of Behavioral Addiction relying on the presence of behavior-specific compulsivity. Complementarily, we consider whether some activities can become disordered while remaining mostly goal-driven. Based on reinforcement learning models, relative outcome utility computation is proposed as an alternative mechanism through which dysfunctional behaviors (even not qualifying as addictive) can override adaptive ones, causing functional impairment. Beyond issues of conceptual delimitation, recommendations are made regarding the importance of identifying individual etiological pathways to dysregulated behavior, the necessity of accurately profiling at-risk individuals, and the potential hazards of symptom-based diagnosis. In our view, the validity of these recommendations does not depend on the position one takes in the nosological debate.
characteristics of self identified sexual addicts in a Behavioral Addiction outpatient clinicJournal of behavioral addictions, 2016Co-Authors: Aline Wery, Joël Billieux, Kim Vogelaere, Gaelle Challetbouju, Francoisxavier Poudat, Julie Caillon, Delphine Lever, Marie GrallbronnecAbstract:
Background and aimsResearch on sexual Addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified “sexual addicts.”MethodsThe sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures.ResultsMost patients were males (94.4%) aged 20–76 years (mean 40.3 ± 10.9). Endorsement of sexual Addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using…
are we overpathologizing everyday life a tenable blueprint for Behavioral Addiction researchJournal of behavioral addictions, 2015Co-Authors: Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage, Adriano Schimmenti, Yasser Khazaal, Alexandre HeerenAbstract:
Background Behavioral Addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine Addiction. Methods and aim In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of “new” Behavioral Addictions. Results Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed. Conclusions We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of Behavioral Addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable Behavioral Addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved.
Jintao Zhang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
is monetary reward processing altered in drug naive youth with a Behavioral Addiction findings from internet gaming disorderNeuroImage: Clinical, 2020Co-Authors: Patrick D Worhunsky, Sarah Lichenstein, Songshan Yang, Jintao ZhangAbstract:
Abstract Current models of Addiction biology highlight altered neural responses to non-drug rewards as a central feature of Addiction. However, given that drugs of abuse can directly impact reward-related dopamine circuitry, it is difficult to determine the extent to which reward processing alterations are a trait feature of individuals with Addictions, or primarily a consequence of exogenous drug exposure. Examining individuals with Behavioral Addictions is one promising approach for disentangling neural features of Addiction from the direct effects of substance exposure. The current fMRI study compared neural responses during monetary reward processing between drug naive young adults with a Behavioral Addiction, internet gaming disorder (IGD; n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 27) using a monetary incentive delay task. Relative to controls, individuals with IGD exhibited blunted caudate activity associated with loss magnitude at the outcome stage, but did not differ from controls in neural activity at other stages. These findings suggest that decreased loss sensitivity might be a critical feature of IGD, whereas alterations in gain processing may be less characteristic of individuals with IGD, relative to those with substance use disorders. Therefore, classic theories of altered reward processing in substance use disorders should be translated to Behavioral Addictions with caution.
activation of the ventral and dorsal striatum during cue reactivity in internet gaming disorderAddiction Biology, 2017Co-Authors: Jintao Zhang, Lingjiao Wang, Zijiao Shen, Xiaoyi FangAbstract:
Studies conducted in drug Addiction suggest a transition in processing of drug-related cues from the ventral to the dorsal component of the striatum. However, this process has not been studied in a Behavioral Addiction. Assessment of this process in a non-drug Addiction can provide insight into the pathophysiology of both substance and Behavioral Addictions. Thirty-nine male Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects and 23 male matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a cue-reactivity task involving alternating presentation of Internet gaming-related stimuli (game cues) and general Internet surfing-related stimuli (control cues). Cue-induced neural activations in the ventral and dorsal striatum (DS) were compared between IGD and HC participants. Associations between cue-reactivity within these regions and cue-induced craving and severity and duration of IGD were also explored. IGD participants exhibited higher cue-induced activations within both the ventral and DS when compared with HCs. Within the IGD group, activity within the left ventral striatum (VS) was correlated negatively with cue-induced craving; positive associations were found between activations within the DS (right putamen, pallidum and left caudate) and duration of IGD. Cue-induced activity within the left putamen was negatively associated with right VS volumes among IGD participants. Consistent with studies in substance Addictions, our results suggest that a transition from ventral to dorsal striatal processing may occur among individuals with IGD, a condition without the impact of substance intake.
Luke Clark – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
cognitive factors in gambling disorder a Behavioral Addiction, 2020Co-Authors: Gabriel A Brooks, Mario A Ferrari, Luke ClarkAbstract:
Abstract Gambling disorder is recognized in DSM-5 and ICD-11 as a Behavioral Addiction that shares substantial psychological and neurobiological overlap with substance use disorders. This chapter outlines how cognitive processes originally described in the field of judgment and decision-making provide a foundation from which gambling-related cognitive distortions emerge. These cognitive mechanisms are implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of disordered gambling. We focus on three specific effects: the illusion of control, the tendency to anthropomorphize gambling games, and slot machine immersion. We conceptualize these biases as arising from the interaction between personal vulnerabilities to gambling disorder, which include neurocognitive dispositional factors and structural characteristics of gambling products. From this framework, the structural design of gambling products, including emerging technologies that facilitate access to gambling games, may perpetuate gambling-related distortions and thus gambling harms, with implications for regulation. Psychological therapies that build on this cognitive approach are widely deployed in the treatment of problem gambling and have evidence of effectiveness, including techniques directly aiming to restructure decision-making biases.
Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for Behavioral Addiction research. On the slippery slopes: The case of gambling Addiction.Journal of behavioral addictions, 2015Co-Authors: Luke ClarkAbstract:
Billieux et al. (2015) propose that the recent proliferation of Behavioral Addictions has been driven by deficiencies in the underlying research strategy. This commentary considers how pathological gambling (now termed gambling disorder) traversed these challenges to become the first recognized Behavioral Addiction in the DSM-5. Ironically, many similar issues continue to exist in research on gambling disorder, including question-marks over the validity of tolerance, heterogeneity in gambling motives, and the under-specification of neuroimaging biomarkers. Nevertheless, I contend that the case for gambling disorder as a Behavioral Addiction has been bolstered by the existence of clear and consistent functional impairment (primarily in the form of debt), coupled with the development of a public health approach that has given emphasis to product features (i.e. the structural characteristics of gambling forms) as much as individual dispositions (the ‘addictive personality’).
disordered gambling the evolving concept of Behavioral AddictionAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2014Co-Authors: Luke ClarkAbstract:
The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Addictions category marks an important step for Addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler’s fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and Behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future Behavioral Addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder.