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Bony Labyrinth

The Experts below are selected from a list of 306 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Juan Luis Arsuaga – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the Bony Labyrinth in the aroeira 3 middle pleistocene cranium
    Journal of Human Evolution, 2018
    Co-Authors: Mercedes Condevalverde, Rolf Quam, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Ignacio Martínez, Joao Zilhao, Joan Daura, Montserrat Sanz

    Abstract:

    Abstract The discovery of a partial cranium at the site of Aroeira (Portugal) dating to 389–436 ka augments the current sample of Middle Pleistocene European crania and makes this specimen penecontemporaneous with the fossils from the geographically close Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH) and Arago sites. A recent study of the cranium documented a unique combination of primitive and derived features. The Aroeira 3 cranium preserves the right temporal bone, including the petrosal portion. Virtual reconstruction of the Bony Labyrinth from μCT scans provides an opportunity to examine its morphology. A series of standard linear and angular measures of the semicircular canals and cochlea in Aroeira 3 were compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans. Our analysis has revealed the absence of derived Neandertal features in Aroeira 3. In particular, the specimen lacks both the derived canal proportions and the low position of the posterior canal, two of the most diagnostic features of the Neandertal Bony Labyrinth, and Aroeira 3 is more primitive in these features than the Atapuerca (SH) sample. One potentially derived feature (low shape index of the cochlear basal turn) is shared between Aroeira 3 and the Atapuerca (SH) hominins, but is absent in Neandertals. The results of our study provide new insights into Middle Pleistocene population dynamics close to the origin of the Neandertal clade. In particular, the contrasting inner ear morphology between Aroeira 3 and the Atapuerca (SH) hominins suggests a degree of demographic isolation, despite the close geographic proximity and similar age of these two sites.

  • The Bony Labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)
    Journal of Human Evolution, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rolf Quam, Carlos Lorenzo, Ignacio Martínez, Ana Gracia-téllez, Juan Luis Arsuaga

    Abstract:

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the Bony Labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal Labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm < APA), posterior surface of the petrous pyramid (LSCm > PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not fully resolved, the low placement of the posterior canal in Neandertals may be related to some combination of absolutely large brain size, a wide cranial base, and an archaic pattern of brain allometry. This more general explanation would not necessarily follow taxonomic lines, even though this morphology of the Bony Labyrinth occurs at high frequencies among Neandertals. While a functional interpretation of the relatively small vertical canals in the Neandertal clade remains elusive, the relative proportions of the semicircular canals is one of several derived Neandertal features in the Atapuerca (SH) crania. Examination of additional European middle Pleistocene specimens suggests that the full suite of Neandertal features in the Bony Labyrinth did not emerge in Europe until perhaps

  • the Bony Labyrinth of the middle pleistocene sima de los huesos hominins sierra de atapuerca spain
    Journal of Human Evolution, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rolf Quam, Carlos Lorenzo, Ignacio Martínez, Ana Graciatellez, Juan Luis Arsuaga

    Abstract:

    Abstract We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the Bony Labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal Labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm   PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm  Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not fully resolved, the low placement of the posterior canal in Neandertals may be related to some combination of absolutely large brain size, a wide cranial base, and an archaic pattern of brain allometry. This more general explanation would not necessarily follow taxonomic lines, even though this morphology of the Bony Labyrinth occurs at high frequencies among Neandertals. While a functional interpretation of the relatively small vertical canals in the Neandertal clade remains elusive, the relative proportions of the semicircular canals is one of several derived Neandertal features in the Atapuerca (SH) crania. Examination of additional European middle Pleistocene specimens suggests that the full suite of Neandertal features in the Bony Labyrinth did not emerge in Europe until perhaps

Rolf Quam – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the Bony Labyrinth in the aroeira 3 middle pleistocene cranium
    Journal of Human Evolution, 2018
    Co-Authors: Mercedes Condevalverde, Rolf Quam, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Ignacio Martínez, Joao Zilhao, Joan Daura, Montserrat Sanz

    Abstract:

    Abstract The discovery of a partial cranium at the site of Aroeira (Portugal) dating to 389–436 ka augments the current sample of Middle Pleistocene European crania and makes this specimen penecontemporaneous with the fossils from the geographically close Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH) and Arago sites. A recent study of the cranium documented a unique combination of primitive and derived features. The Aroeira 3 cranium preserves the right temporal bone, including the petrosal portion. Virtual reconstruction of the Bony Labyrinth from μCT scans provides an opportunity to examine its morphology. A series of standard linear and angular measures of the semicircular canals and cochlea in Aroeira 3 were compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans. Our analysis has revealed the absence of derived Neandertal features in Aroeira 3. In particular, the specimen lacks both the derived canal proportions and the low position of the posterior canal, two of the most diagnostic features of the Neandertal Bony Labyrinth, and Aroeira 3 is more primitive in these features than the Atapuerca (SH) sample. One potentially derived feature (low shape index of the cochlear basal turn) is shared between Aroeira 3 and the Atapuerca (SH) hominins, but is absent in Neandertals. The results of our study provide new insights into Middle Pleistocene population dynamics close to the origin of the Neandertal clade. In particular, the contrasting inner ear morphology between Aroeira 3 and the Atapuerca (SH) hominins suggests a degree of demographic isolation, despite the close geographic proximity and similar age of these two sites.

  • The Bony Labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)
    Journal of Human Evolution, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rolf Quam, Carlos Lorenzo, Ignacio Martínez, Ana Gracia-téllez, Juan Luis Arsuaga

    Abstract:

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the Bony Labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal Labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm < APA), posterior surface of the petrous pyramid (LSCm > PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not fully resolved, the low placement of the posterior canal in Neandertals may be related to some combination of absolutely large brain size, a wide cranial base, and an archaic pattern of brain allometry. This more general explanation would not necessarily follow taxonomic lines, even though this morphology of the Bony Labyrinth occurs at high frequencies among Neandertals. While a functional interpretation of the relatively small vertical canals in the Neandertal clade remains elusive, the relative proportions of the semicircular canals is one of several derived Neandertal features in the Atapuerca (SH) crania. Examination of additional European middle Pleistocene specimens suggests that the full suite of Neandertal features in the Bony Labyrinth did not emerge in Europe until perhaps

  • the Bony Labyrinth of the middle pleistocene sima de los huesos hominins sierra de atapuerca spain
    Journal of Human Evolution, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rolf Quam, Carlos Lorenzo, Ignacio Martínez, Ana Graciatellez, Juan Luis Arsuaga

    Abstract:

    Abstract We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the Bony Labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal Labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm   PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm  Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not fully resolved, the low placement of the posterior canal in Neandertals may be related to some combination of absolutely large brain size, a wide cranial base, and an archaic pattern of brain allometry. This more general explanation would not necessarily follow taxonomic lines, even though this morphology of the Bony Labyrinth occurs at high frequencies among Neandertals. While a functional interpretation of the relatively small vertical canals in the Neandertal clade remains elusive, the relative proportions of the semicircular canals is one of several derived Neandertal features in the Atapuerca (SH) crania. Examination of additional European middle Pleistocene specimens suggests that the full suite of Neandertal features in the Bony Labyrinth did not emerge in Europe until perhaps

Loic Costeur – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the Bony Labyrinth of toothed whales reflects both phylogeny and habitat preferences
    Scientific Reports, 2018
    Co-Authors: Loic Costeur, Eric G. Ekdale, Camille Grohé, Georg Schulz, Bert Muller, Gabriel Aguirrefernandez, Bastien Mennecart

    Abstract:

    The inner ear of toothed whales (odontocetes) is known to have evolved particular shapes related to their abilities to echolocate and move under water. While the origin of these capacities is now more and more examined, thanks to new imaging techniques, little is still known about how informative inner ear shape could be to tackle phylogenetic issues or questions pertaining to the habitat preferences of extinct species. Here we show that the shape of the Bony Labyrinth of toothed whales provides key information both about phylogeny and habitat preferences (freshwater versus coastal and fully marine habitats). Our investigation of more than 20 species of extinct and modern odontocetes shows that the semi-circular canals are not very informative, in contrast to baleen whales, while the cochlea alone bears a strong signal. Inner ear shape thus provides a novel source of information to distinguish between morphologically convergent lineages (e.g. river dolphins).

  • The first French tragulid skull (Mammalia, Ruminantia, Tragulidae) and associated tragulid remains from the Middle Miocene of Contres (Loir-et-Cher, France)
    Comptes Rendus Palevol, 2017
    Co-Authors: Bastien Mennecart, Gertrud E Rossner, Adrien De Perthuis, Jonathan A. Guzmán, Loic Costeur

    Abstract:

    Abstract The Faluns Auger quarry (Contres, France) is famous for its Langhian mammal fauna (MN5) and tragulid remains have been identified as Dorcatherium sp. New excavations provided a fragmented skull of a tragulid, dental remains, and a metapodium which we describe here. Based on morphological and morphometrical characters, these specimens are attributed to Dorcatherium crassum. CT-scans provide insight in the petrosal bone and Bony Labyrinth. We prove intra-population variability of the p4 and intra-specific variability of the Bony Labyrinth. Nevertheless, we can demonstrate that the Bony Labyrinth is useful for systematics. Thus, we confirm the presence of D. crassum in the Pontlevoy–Thenay and Savigne-sur-Lathan Faluns Basins as reported already prior to our study. Yet, we cannot confirm evidence for Dorcatherium naui. D. naui specimens reported from these basins may belong to another species. D. naui should be absent from the Faluns before MN7, such as in the rest of Europe.

  • A Dolphin Fossil Ear Bone from the Northern Neotropics—Insights into Habitat Transitions in Iniid Evolution
    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2017
    Co-Authors: Gabriel Aguirre-fernández, Marcelo R. Sánchez-villagra, Bastien Mennecart, Rodolfo Sánchez, Loic Costeur

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTAn iniid fossil (Cetacea, Odontoceti) is reported based on a periotic found in the Codore Formation (late Miocene to middle Pliocene) of northwestern Venezuela. The marine sediments where the Codore dolphin was collected have yielded another cetacean and a diverse elasmobranch fauna. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship between the Codore dolphin and the extant Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis); key characteristics include a large cochlear portion that is dorsoventrally compressed and the extremely small size of the posterior process. High-resolution micro-computed tomography scans were used for the description and analysis of the Bony Labyrinth endocast. Geometric morphometric analysis of the Bony Labyrinth endocast places the Codore dolphin as intermediate between the La Plata dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) and Inia geoffrensis (principal component 1), but distinctive from both extant species (principal component 2). Comparisons of the depositional environment with cladistic…