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Tom Duckett – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • 3d vision based detection localization and sizing of Broccoli heads in the field
    Journal of Field Robotics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Keerthy Kusumam, Tom Duckett, Tomáš Krajník, Simon Pearson, Grzegorz Cielniak

    Abstract:

    This paper describes a 3D vision system for robotic harvesting of Broccoli using low-cost RGB-D sensors, which was developed and evaluated using sensory data collected under real-world field conditions in both the UK and Spain. The presented method addresses the tasks of detecting mature Broccoli heads in the field and providing their 3D locations relative to the vehicle. The paper evaluates different 3D features, machine learning, and temporal filtering methods for detection of Broccoli heads. Our experiments show that a combination of Viewpoint Feature Histograms, Support Vector Machine classifier, and a temporal filter to track the detected heads results in a system that detects Broccoli heads with high precision. We also show that the temporal filtering can be used to generate a 3D map of the Broccoli head positions in the field. Additionally, we present methods for automatically estimating the size of the Broccoli heads, to determine when a head is ready for harvest. All of the methods were evaluated using ground-truth data from both the UK and Spain, which we also make available to the research community for subsequent algorithm development and result comparison. Cross-validation of the system trained on the UK dataset on the Spanish dataset, and vice versa, indicated good generalization capabilities of the system, confirming the strong potential of low-cost 3D imaging for commercial Broccoli harvesting.

  • IROS – Can you pick a Broccoli? 3D-vision based detection and localisation of Broccoli heads in the field
    2016 IEEE RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2016
    Co-Authors: Keerthy Kusumam, Tomáš Krajník, Simon Pearson, Grzegorz Cielniak, Tom Duckett

    Abstract:

    This paper presents a 3D vision system for robotic harvesting of Broccoli using low-cost RGB-D sensors. The presented method addresses the tasks of detecting mature Broccoli heads in the field and providing their 3D locations relative to the vehicle. The paper evaluates different 3D features, machine learning and temporal filtering methods for detection of Broccoli heads. Our experiments show that a combination of Viewpoint Feature Histograms, Support Vector Machine classifier and a temporal filter to track the detected heads results in a system that detects Broccoli heads with 95.2% precision. We also show that the temporal filtering can be used to generate a 3D map of the Broccoli head positions in the field.

  • Can you pick a Broccoli? 3D-vision based detection and localisation of Broccoli heads in the field
    2016 IEEE RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2016
    Co-Authors: Keerthy Kusumam, Tomáš Krajník, Simon Pearson, Grzegorz Cielniak, Tom Duckett

    Abstract:

    This paper presents a 3D vision system for robotic harvesting of Broccoli using low-cost RGB-D sensors. The presented method addresses the tasks of detecting mature Broccoli heads in the field and providing their 3D locations relative to the vehicle. The paper evaluates different 3D features, machine learning and temporal filtering methods for detection of Broccoli heads. Our experiments show that a combination of Viewpoint Feature Histograms, Support Vector Machine classifier and a temporal filter to track the detected heads results in a system that detects Broccoli heads with 95.2% precision. We also show that the temporal filtering can be used to generate a 3D map of the Broccoli head positions in the field.

Elizabeth H. Jeffery – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Lightly Cooked Broccoli Is as Effective as Raw Broccoli in Mitigating Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice
    Nutrients, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yanling Wang, Elizabeth H. Jeffery, Matthew A. Wallig, Michael J. Miller, Yuanfeng Wu

    Abstract:

    Dietary Broccoli is anti-inflammatory. Past studies have typically investigated raw Broccoli, even though most consumers prefer cooked Broccoli, where the plant myrosinase is inactivated by heat, resulting in failure of formation of the anti-inflammatory bioactive compound sulforaphane (SF). This study compareed efficacy of lightly cooked Broccoli (CB) containing greatly diminished myrosinase activity, with raw Broccoli (RB), in mitigating colitis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for two weeks on a 10% RB, 10% CB or control diet, all based on the AIN-93M diet. Half (n = 9) of each group received drinking water, half received 2.5% DSS in water for one week, starting from Day 7 of the diet. Even with far less plant myrosinase activity, CB was essentially as effective as RB in lessening damage by DSS, evidenced by decreased disease activity index, attenuated colon length shrinkage, less endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) leakage into blood, and less severe colon lesions as assessed by histopathology. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicated that Broccoli anti-inflammatory action may be through inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway, as evidenced by reversal of the DSS-increased expression of IL-6, CCR2 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1).

  • Sulforaphane Absorption and Excretion Following Ingestion of a Semi-Purified Broccoli Powder Rich in Glucoraphanin and Broccoli Sprouts in Healthy Men
    Nutrition and Cancer, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jenna M. Cramer, Elizabeth H. Jeffery

    Abstract:

    Sulforaphane (SF) is a chemopreventive isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from the myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucoraphanin, a thioglucoside present in Broccoli. Broccoli supplements often contain glucoraphanin but lack myrosinase, putting in question their ability to provide dietary SF. This study compared the relative absorption of SF from air-dried Broccoli sprouts rich in myrosinase and a glucoraphanin-rich Broccoli powder lacking myrosinase, individually and in combination. Subjects (n = 4) each consumed 4 meals consisting of dry cereal and yogurt with 2 g sprouts, 2 g powder, both, or neither. Blood and urine were analyzed for SF metabolites. The 24 h urinary SF recovery was 74%, 49%, and 19% of the dose ingested from Broccoli sprouts, combination, and Broccoli powder meals, respectively. Urinary and plasma ITC appearance was delayed from the Broccoli powder compared to the sprouts and combination. A liver function panel indicated no toxicity from any treatment at 24 h. These data indicate a delay…

  • physiological effects of Broccoli consumption
    Phytochemistry Reviews, 2009
    Co-Authors: Elizabeth H. Jeffery, Marcela Araya

    Abstract:

    Epidemiological studies suggest that Broccoli can decrease risk for cancer. Broccoli contains many bioactives, including vitamins C and E, quercetin and kaempferol glycosides and, like other members of the Brassicaceae, several glucosinolates, including glucobrassicin (3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate) and glucoraphanin (4-methylsulphinylbutyl glucosinolate). A key bioactive component responsible for much of this activity may be sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane), a hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin. Sulforaphane not only upregulates a number of phase II detoxification enzymes involved in clearance of chemical carcinogens and reactive oxygen species, but has anti-tumorigenic properties, causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. The bioequivalency of sulforaphane and whole Broccoli have not been fully evaluated, leaving it unclear whether whole Broccoli provides a similar effect to purified sulforaphane, or whether the presence of other components in Broccoli, such as indole-3-carbinol from glucobrassicin, is an added health benefit. Dietary indole-3-carbinol is known to alter estrogen metabolism, to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells and, in animals, to decrease risk for breast cancer. Recent research suggests that both dietary Broccoli and the individual components sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol may offer protection from a far broader array of diseases than cancer, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. A common link between these oxidative degenerative diseases and cancer may be aggravation by inflammation. A small body of literature is forming suggesting that both indole-3-carbinol and sulforaphane may protect against inflammation, inhibiting cytokine production. It remains to be seen whether cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia and other diseases of aging can all benefit from a diet rich in Broccoli and other crucifers.

Emily Ho – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • bioavailability and inter conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming Broccoli sprouts or Broccoli supplement in a cross over study design
    Pharmacological Research, 2011
    Co-Authors: John D Clarke, Emily Ho, Ken M Riedl, Deborah Bella, Steven J Schwartz, Jan F Stevens

    Abstract:

    Abstract Broccoli consumption may reduce the risk of various cancers and many Broccoli supplements are now available. The bioavailability and excretion of the mercapturic acid pathway metabolites isothiocyanates after human consumption of Broccoli supplements has not been tested. Two important isothiocyanates from Broccoli are sulforaphane and erucin. We employed a cross-over study design in which 12 subjects consumed 40 g of fresh Broccoli sprouts followed by a 1 month washout period and then the same 12 subjects consumed 6 pills of a Broccoli supplement. As negative controls for isothiocyanate consumption four additional subjects consumed alfalfa sprouts during the first phase and placebo pills during the second. Blood and urine samples were collected for 48 h during each phase and analyzed for sulforaphane and erucin metabolites using LC–MS/MS. The bioavailability of sulforaphane and erucin is dramatically lower when subjects consume Broccoli supplements compared to fresh Broccoli sprouts. The peaks in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion were also delayed when subjects consumed the Broccoli supplement. GSTP1 polymorphisms did not affect the metabolism or excretion of sulforaphane or erucin. Sulforaphane and erucin are able to interconvert in vivo and this interconversion is consistent within each subject but variable between subjects. This study confirms that consumption of Broccoli supplements devoid of myrosinase activity does not produce equivalent plasma concentrations of the bioactive isothiocyanate metabolites compared to Broccoli sprouts. This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a Broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates.

  • Comparison of isothiocyanate metabolite levels and histone deacetylase activity in human subjects consuming Broccoli sprouts or Broccoli supplement.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011
    Co-Authors: John D Clarke, Ken M Riedl, Deborah Bella, Steven J Schwartz, Jan F Stevens, Emily Ho

    Abstract:

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables such as Broccoli may reduce the risk of various cancers. Myrosinase is required to convert dietary glucosinolates from Broccoli into bioactive isothiocyanates. We evaluated isothiocyanate excretion profiles in healthy subjects who consumed Broccoli sprouts or Broccoli supplement (no myrosinase) with equivalent glucosinolate content. Urinary metabolites of two major isothiocyanates, sulforaphane and erucin, were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Peak excretion of sulforaphane and erucin was higher and occurred sooner in subjects who consumed Broccoli sprouts as compared to subjects who consumed the supplement. A subject-dependent shift in the ratio of urinary sulforaphane to erucin metabolites was observed in both groups, indicating conversion of sulforaphane to erucin. Lower histone deacetylase activity was observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells only in subjects consuming sprouts. Fresh Broccoli sprouts diff…