Tachinidae

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John O. Stireman - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • pelamera atra rondani 1861 diptera Tachinidae systematics of a rare and enigmatic bristle fly from europe
    Zoologischer Anzeiger, 2021
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Silvia Gisondi, Giulia Bellanti, Maurizio Mei, Andrea Di Giulio, Pierfilippo Cerretti
    Abstract:

    Abstract Pelamera atra (Rondani, 1861) is an enigmatic species of bristle fly that has been challenging dipterologists with regard to its taxonomic position within the family Tachinidae since it was first described. The species is rarely collected and is only known from a handful of female specimens. The first ever male specimen of P. atra was collected in southern Italy in 2017, and it allowed for the discovery of its unique terminalia. The present paper provides the first description of a male of P. atra and presents new insights about its phylogenetic position within the family based on molecular data. A maximum likelihood analysis was conducted on a selection of tachinid taxa using sequences of two nuclear protein-coding genes (CAD and MCS) to formulate the first hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic placement of P. atra. Phylogenetic analyses reconstructed P. atra as a member of the Tachininae sister to the (Loewiini + (Polideini + Ernestiini)) clade. This reconstruction challenges previous attempts at classifying Pelamera based on female external morphology, which instead suggested a close affinity to the tribes Brachymerini or Minthoini. Due to the morphological distinctiveness of this taxon, we here propose the placement of P. atra in the monotypic tribe Pelamerini stat. rev.

  • molecular phylogeny and evolution of world Tachinidae diptera
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2019
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships within the diverse parasitoid fly family Tachinidae using four nuclear loci (7800 bp) and including an exceptionally large sample of more than 500 taxa from around the world. The position of the earthworm-parasitizing Polleniinae (Calliphoridae s.l.) as sister to Tachinidae is strongly supported. Our analyses recovered each of the four tachinid subfamilies and most recognized tribes, with some important exceptions in the Dexiinae and Tachininae. Most notably, the tachinine tribes Macquartiini and Myiophasiini form a clade sister to all other Tachinidae, and a clade of Palpostomatini is reconstructed as sister to Dexiinae + Phasiinae. Although most nodes are well-supported, relationships within several lineages that appear to have undergone rapid episodes of diversification (basal Dexiinae and Tachininae, Blondeliini) were poorly resolved. Reconstructions of host use evolution are equivocal, but generally support the hypothesis that the ancestral host of tachinids was a beetle and that subsequent host shifts to caterpillars may coincide with accelerated diversification. Evolutionary reconstructions of reproductive strategy using alternative methods were incongruent, however it is most likely that ancestral tachinids possessed unincubated, thick shelled eggs from which incubated eggs evolved repeatedly, potentially expanding available host niches. These results provide a broad foundation for understanding the phylogeny and evolution of this important family of parasitoid insects. We hope it will serve as a framework to be used in concert with morphology and other sources of evidence to revise the higher taxonomic classification of Tachinidae and further explore their evolutionary history and diversification.

  • The monophyly of the Glaurocarini (Diptera: Tachinidae: Tachininae) with the description of a new species of Semisuturia from Australia
    Insect Systematics & Evolution, 2018
    Co-Authors: Diego J. Inclán, James E. O’hara, John O. Stireman, Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki, Giuseppe Lo Giudice, Hiroshi Shima, Pierfilippo Cerretti
    Abstract:

    The Glaurocarini are a small Old World tribe of tachinids belonging to the subfamily Tachininae. Two genera are currently recognized, Glaurocara Thomson with 16 species and Semisuturia Malloch with eight species. In this study we describe Semisuturia moffattensis Inclan, O’Hara, Stireman & Cerretti sp. n. from Queensland and New South Wales and compare it with congeners as well as other glaurocarines. The new species is readily identifiable among world glaurocarines by having a row of setae on lower 2/3 of facial ridge. We further evaluate the monophyly of the Glaurocarini on the basis of morphological characters of both adult and larval stages. A molecular phylogenetic analysis also supports monophyly of the tribe but does not support a close relationship between Glaurocarini and Ormiini as has been suggested previously. Finally, we provide new morphological evidence from both adults and first instar larvae to support the monophyly of both Semisuturia and Glaurocara.

  • Tachinid Fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) Parasitoids of Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
    Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 2017
    Co-Authors: Karen S Oberhauser, Dane Elmquist, Juan Manuel Perilla-lopez, Ilse Gebhard, Laura Lukens, John O. Stireman
    Abstract:

    Extensive rearing of monarch larvae (Danaus plexippus L.) through the citizen science Monarch Larva Monitoring Project (MLMP) revealed that monarchs' primary parasitoids are flies in the family Tachinidae and that these parasitoids result in appreciable larval mortality. We document the tachinid community that attacks monarchs in the United States, evaluate their relative frequency, and examine variation in their specificity, oviposition strategy, and use of host stages. Based on results of rearing >20,000 monarchs by MLMP volunteers, overall parasitism by tachinids across life stages was 9.8% (17% for monarchs collected as fifth instars). We identified the flies that emerged from 466 monarch hosts, and found seven Tachinidae species. In decreasing order of frequency, these included Lespesia archippivora (Riley), Hyphantrophaga virilis (Aldrich & Webber), Compsilura concinnata (Meigen), Leschenaultia n. sp., Madremyia saundersii (Williston), Lespesia sp., and Nilea erecta (Coquillett). Lespesia sp., Leschenaultia n. sp., and N. erecta had not been previously reported as monarch parasitoids, and Leschenaultia n. sp. is apparently undescribed. We include new state records (Texas and Iowa) for C. concinnata. Lespesia archippivora and C. concinnata were overrepresented as parasitoids of later instars and were absent from monarchs collected as eggs, but H. virilis and Leschenaultia sp., which lay their eggs on foliage, were reared from caterpillars collected as eggs. To our knowledge, we include the first report of multiparasitism of monarchs, in which more than one parasitoid species emerged from a host. The biology of the tachinid parasitoids we identified and their relationship with monarchs is examined.

  • explosive radiation or uninformative genes origin and early diversification of tachinid flies diptera Tachinidae
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2015
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, Isaac S Winkler, Daniel J Davis, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    Abstract Molecular phylogenetic studies at all taxonomic levels often infer rapid radiation events based on short, poorly resolved internodes. While such rapid episodes of diversification are an important and widespread evolutionary phenomenon, much of this poor phylogenetic resolution may be attributed to the continuing widespread use of “traditional” markers (mitochondrial, ribosomal, and some nuclear protein-coding genes) that are often poorly suited to resolve difficult, higher-level phylogenetic problems. Here we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among a representative set of taxa of the parasitoid fly family Tachinidae and related outgroups of the superfamily Oestroidea. The Tachinidae are one of the most species rich, yet evolutionarily recent families of Diptera, providing an ideal case study for examining the differential performance of loci in resolving phylogenetic relationships and the benefits of adding more loci to phylogenetic analyses. We assess the phylogenetic utility of nine genes including both traditional genes (e.g., CO1 mtDNA, 28S rDNA) and nuclear protein-coding genes newly developed for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic findings, based on a limited set of taxa, include: a close relationship between Tachinidae and the calliphorid subfamily Polleninae, monophyly of Tachinidae and the subfamilies Exoristinae and Dexiinae, subfamily groupings of Dexiinae + Phasiinae and Tachininae + Exoristinae, and robust phylogenetic placement of the somewhat enigmatic genera Strongygaster, Euthera, and Ceracia. In contrast to poor resolution and phylogenetic incongruence of “traditional genes,” we find that a more selective set of highly informative genes is able to more precisely identify regions of the phylogeny that experienced rapid radiation of lineages, while more accurately depicting their phylogenetic context. Although much expanded taxon sampling is necessary to effectively assess the monophyly of and relationships among major tachinid lineages and their relatives, we show that a small number of well-chosen nuclear protein-coding genes can successfully resolve even difficult phylogenetic problems.

Pierfilippo Cerretti - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • pelamera atra rondani 1861 diptera Tachinidae systematics of a rare and enigmatic bristle fly from europe
    Zoologischer Anzeiger, 2021
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Silvia Gisondi, Giulia Bellanti, Maurizio Mei, Andrea Di Giulio, Pierfilippo Cerretti
    Abstract:

    Abstract Pelamera atra (Rondani, 1861) is an enigmatic species of bristle fly that has been challenging dipterologists with regard to its taxonomic position within the family Tachinidae since it was first described. The species is rarely collected and is only known from a handful of female specimens. The first ever male specimen of P. atra was collected in southern Italy in 2017, and it allowed for the discovery of its unique terminalia. The present paper provides the first description of a male of P. atra and presents new insights about its phylogenetic position within the family based on molecular data. A maximum likelihood analysis was conducted on a selection of tachinid taxa using sequences of two nuclear protein-coding genes (CAD and MCS) to formulate the first hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic placement of P. atra. Phylogenetic analyses reconstructed P. atra as a member of the Tachininae sister to the (Loewiini + (Polideini + Ernestiini)) clade. This reconstruction challenges previous attempts at classifying Pelamera based on female external morphology, which instead suggested a close affinity to the tribes Brachymerini or Minthoini. Due to the morphological distinctiveness of this taxon, we here propose the placement of P. atra in the monotypic tribe Pelamerini stat. rev.

  • molecular phylogeny and evolution of world Tachinidae diptera
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2019
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships within the diverse parasitoid fly family Tachinidae using four nuclear loci (7800 bp) and including an exceptionally large sample of more than 500 taxa from around the world. The position of the earthworm-parasitizing Polleniinae (Calliphoridae s.l.) as sister to Tachinidae is strongly supported. Our analyses recovered each of the four tachinid subfamilies and most recognized tribes, with some important exceptions in the Dexiinae and Tachininae. Most notably, the tachinine tribes Macquartiini and Myiophasiini form a clade sister to all other Tachinidae, and a clade of Palpostomatini is reconstructed as sister to Dexiinae + Phasiinae. Although most nodes are well-supported, relationships within several lineages that appear to have undergone rapid episodes of diversification (basal Dexiinae and Tachininae, Blondeliini) were poorly resolved. Reconstructions of host use evolution are equivocal, but generally support the hypothesis that the ancestral host of tachinids was a beetle and that subsequent host shifts to caterpillars may coincide with accelerated diversification. Evolutionary reconstructions of reproductive strategy using alternative methods were incongruent, however it is most likely that ancestral tachinids possessed unincubated, thick shelled eggs from which incubated eggs evolved repeatedly, potentially expanding available host niches. These results provide a broad foundation for understanding the phylogeny and evolution of this important family of parasitoid insects. We hope it will serve as a framework to be used in concert with morphology and other sources of evidence to revise the higher taxonomic classification of Tachinidae and further explore their evolutionary history and diversification.

  • dna barcodes reveal a new host record for carcelia atricosta herting diptera Tachinidae in italy
    Redia-Giornale Di Zoologia, 2018
    Co-Authors: Daria Corcos, Massimiliano Centorame, Pierfilippo Cerretti
    Abstract:

    The parasitoid-host association between Orgyia antiqua(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and Carceliaatricosta Herting (Diptera: Tachinidae) is recorded here for the first time in Italy. A single caterpillar of O. antiqua wascollected in Northern Italy (Arzergrande, Padua, Veneto Region) in June 2015. After the specimen died, a single tachinidlarva emerged and pupariated. The emerged parasitoid was identified using DNA barcoding, with DNA extracted from thetachinid pupa. This is the first distributional record of C. atricostain Northern Italy and the second for Italy, only two otherspecimens having being recorded previously (Abruzzo Region, Central Italy).

  • The monophyly of the Glaurocarini (Diptera: Tachinidae: Tachininae) with the description of a new species of Semisuturia from Australia
    Insect Systematics & Evolution, 2018
    Co-Authors: Diego J. Inclán, James E. O’hara, John O. Stireman, Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki, Giuseppe Lo Giudice, Hiroshi Shima, Pierfilippo Cerretti
    Abstract:

    The Glaurocarini are a small Old World tribe of tachinids belonging to the subfamily Tachininae. Two genera are currently recognized, Glaurocara Thomson with 16 species and Semisuturia Malloch with eight species. In this study we describe Semisuturia moffattensis Inclan, O’Hara, Stireman & Cerretti sp. n. from Queensland and New South Wales and compare it with congeners as well as other glaurocarines. The new species is readily identifiable among world glaurocarines by having a row of setae on lower 2/3 of facial ridge. We further evaluate the monophyly of the Glaurocarini on the basis of morphological characters of both adult and larval stages. A molecular phylogenetic analysis also supports monophyly of the tribe but does not support a close relationship between Glaurocarini and Ormiini as has been suggested previously. Finally, we provide new morphological evidence from both adults and first instar larvae to support the monophyly of both Semisuturia and Glaurocara.

  • a new host record for euthera fascipennis diptera Tachinidae
    Fragmenta Entomologica, 2017
    Co-Authors: Santolo Francati, Maria Luisa Dindo, Pierfilippo Cerretti
    Abstract:

    Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is reported for the first time as a host of Euthera fascipennis (Loew) (Diptera: Tachinidae). A single specimen of E. fascipennis was reared from an adult of D. baccarum collected in northern Italy (Crevalcore, Bologna, Emilia Romagna Region). This is the first host record for E. fascipennis in Italy and the first distributional record of this tachinid in northern Italy.

Yabar Landa Erick - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Géneros Goniini (Díptera: Tachinidae: Exoristiinae) de Cusco, Perú: clave, redescripciones y distribución.
    2018
    Co-Authors: Paucar D. Lizeth, González, Christian R., Yabar Landa Erick
    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT The family Tachinidae is one of the most diverse of all the insect families with more than 8,500 described species classified into more than 1,500 genera. Six genera of Goniini (Diptera, Tachinidae) are reported to Cusco: Araucosimus Aldrich, Chaetocnephalia Townsend, Chaetocraniopsis Townsend, Dolichocnephalia Townsend, Germariopsis Townsend y Gonia Meigen. The genus Araucosimus is cited for the first time to Peru. Genera Chaetocnephalia, Chaetocraniopsis, Dolichocnephalia, and Germariopsis are cited for the first time to Cusco. A key to the six genera is included.RESUMEN Tachinidae es una de las familias de Diptera más diversificadas, y la más grande de Oestroidea, con más de 8.500 especies descritas en más de 1.500 géneros y distribuidas en todas las regiones zoogeográficas del planeta. Se reportan para Cusco seis géneros de Goniini (Diptera, Tachinidae): Araucosimus Aldrich, Chaetocnephalia Townsend, Chaetocraniopsis Townsend, Dolichocnephalia Townsend, Germariopsis Townsend y Gonia Meigen. Los géneros Chaetocnephalia, Chaetocraniopsis, Dolichocnephalia y Germariopsis se reportan por primera vez para Cusco y Araucosimus por primera vez para Perú. Se incluye una clave para los seis géneros estudiados

  • Géneros Goniini (Díptera: Tachinidae: Exoristiinae) de Cusco, Perú: clave, redescripciones y distribución
    'SciELO Agencia Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo (ANID)', 2018
    Co-Authors: Paucar D. Lizeth, González Christian, Yabar Landa Erick
    Abstract:

    Tachinidae es una de las familias de Diptera más diversificadas, y la más grande de Oestroidea, con más de 8.500 especies descritas en más de 1.500 géneros y distribuidas en todas las regiones zoogeográficas del planeta. Se reportan para Cusco seis géneros de Goniini (Diptera, Tachinidae): Araucosimus Aldrich, Chaetocnephalia Townsend, Chaetocraniopsis Townsend, Dolichocnephalia Townsend, Germariopsis Townsend y Gonia Meigen. Los géneros Chaetocnephalia, Chaetocraniopsis, Dolichocnephalia y Germariopsis se reportan por primera vez para Cusco y Araucosimus por primera vez para Perú. Se incluye una clave para los seis géneros estudiados.Por pare

James E Ohara - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • molecular phylogeny and evolution of world Tachinidae diptera
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2019
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships within the diverse parasitoid fly family Tachinidae using four nuclear loci (7800 bp) and including an exceptionally large sample of more than 500 taxa from around the world. The position of the earthworm-parasitizing Polleniinae (Calliphoridae s.l.) as sister to Tachinidae is strongly supported. Our analyses recovered each of the four tachinid subfamilies and most recognized tribes, with some important exceptions in the Dexiinae and Tachininae. Most notably, the tachinine tribes Macquartiini and Myiophasiini form a clade sister to all other Tachinidae, and a clade of Palpostomatini is reconstructed as sister to Dexiinae + Phasiinae. Although most nodes are well-supported, relationships within several lineages that appear to have undergone rapid episodes of diversification (basal Dexiinae and Tachininae, Blondeliini) were poorly resolved. Reconstructions of host use evolution are equivocal, but generally support the hypothesis that the ancestral host of tachinids was a beetle and that subsequent host shifts to caterpillars may coincide with accelerated diversification. Evolutionary reconstructions of reproductive strategy using alternative methods were incongruent, however it is most likely that ancestral tachinids possessed unincubated, thick shelled eggs from which incubated eggs evolved repeatedly, potentially expanding available host niches. These results provide a broad foundation for understanding the phylogeny and evolution of this important family of parasitoid insects. We hope it will serve as a framework to be used in concert with morphology and other sources of evidence to revise the higher taxonomic classification of Tachinidae and further explore their evolutionary history and diversification.

  • explosive radiation or uninformative genes origin and early diversification of tachinid flies diptera Tachinidae
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2015
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, Isaac S Winkler, Daniel J Davis, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    Abstract Molecular phylogenetic studies at all taxonomic levels often infer rapid radiation events based on short, poorly resolved internodes. While such rapid episodes of diversification are an important and widespread evolutionary phenomenon, much of this poor phylogenetic resolution may be attributed to the continuing widespread use of “traditional” markers (mitochondrial, ribosomal, and some nuclear protein-coding genes) that are often poorly suited to resolve difficult, higher-level phylogenetic problems. Here we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among a representative set of taxa of the parasitoid fly family Tachinidae and related outgroups of the superfamily Oestroidea. The Tachinidae are one of the most species rich, yet evolutionarily recent families of Diptera, providing an ideal case study for examining the differential performance of loci in resolving phylogenetic relationships and the benefits of adding more loci to phylogenetic analyses. We assess the phylogenetic utility of nine genes including both traditional genes (e.g., CO1 mtDNA, 28S rDNA) and nuclear protein-coding genes newly developed for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic findings, based on a limited set of taxa, include: a close relationship between Tachinidae and the calliphorid subfamily Polleninae, monophyly of Tachinidae and the subfamilies Exoristinae and Dexiinae, subfamily groupings of Dexiinae + Phasiinae and Tachininae + Exoristinae, and robust phylogenetic placement of the somewhat enigmatic genera Strongygaster, Euthera, and Ceracia. In contrast to poor resolution and phylogenetic incongruence of “traditional genes,” we find that a more selective set of highly informative genes is able to more precisely identify regions of the phylogeny that experienced rapid radiation of lineages, while more accurately depicting their phylogenetic context. Although much expanded taxon sampling is necessary to effectively assess the monophyly of and relationships among major tachinid lineages and their relatives, we show that a small number of well-chosen nuclear protein-coding genes can successfully resolve even difficult phylogenetic problems.

  • signal through the noise phylogeny of the Tachinidae diptera as inferred from morphological evidence
    Systematic Entomology, 2014
    Co-Authors: Pierfilippo Cerretti, Diego J. Inclán, Hiroshi Shima, James E Ohara, Montgomery D Wood, John O. Stireman
    Abstract:

    The oestroid family Tachinidae represents one of the most diverse lineages of insect parasitoids. Despite their broad distribution, diversity and important role as biological control agents, the phylogeny of this family remains poorly known. Here, we review the history of tachinid systematics and present the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis of the family based on morphological data. Cladistic analyses were conducted using 135 morphological characters from 492 species belonging to 180 tachinid genera, including the four currently recognized subfamilies (Dexiinae, Exoristinae, Phasiinae, Tachininae) and all major tribes. We used characters of eggs, first-instar larvae and adults of both sexes. We examined the effects of implied weighting by reanalysing the data with varying concavity factors. Our analysis generally supports the subfamily groupings Dexiinae + Phasiinae and Tachininae + Exoristinae, with only the Exoristinae and the Phasiinae reconstructed as monophyletic assemblages under a wide range of weighting schemes. Under these conditions, the Dexiinae, which were previously considered a well-established monophyletic assemblage, are reconstructed as being paraphyletic with respect to the Phasiinae. The Tachininae are reconstructed as a paraphyletic grade from which the monophyletic Exoristinae arose. The Exoristinae are reconstructed as a monophyletic lineage, but phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily are largely unresolved. We further explored the evolution of oviposition strategy and found that the oviparous groups are nested within ovolarviparous assemblages, suggesting that ovipary may have evolved several times independently from ovolarviparous ancestors. This counterintuitive pattern is a novel hypothesis suggested by the results of this analysis. Finally, two major patterns emerge when considering host associations across our phylogeny under equal weights: (i) although more than 60% of tachinids are parasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae, none of the basal clades is unambiguously associated with Lepidoptera as a primitive condition, suggesting that tachinids were slow to colonize these hosts, but then radiated extensively on them; and (ii) there is general agreement between host use and monophyly of the major lineages.

  • Tachinidae evolution behavior and ecology
    Annual Review of Entomology, 2006
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, James E Ohara, Monty D Wood
    Abstract:

    ▪ Abstract Tachinidae are one of the most diverse and ecologically important families in the order Diptera. As parasitoids, they are important natural enemies in most terrestrial ecological communities, particularly as natural enemies of larval Lepidoptera. Despite their diversity and ecological impact, relatively little is known about the evolution and ecology of tachinids, and what is known tends to be widely dispersed in specialized reports, journals, or texts. In this review we synthesize information on the evolutionary history, behavior, and ecology of tachinids and discuss promising directions for future research involving tachinids. We provide an overview of the phylogenetic history and geographic diversity of tachinids, examine the evolution of oviposition strategies and host associations, review known mechanisms of host location, and discuss recent studies dealing with the ecological interactions between tachinids and their hosts. In doing so, we highlight ways in which investigation of these par...

  • the tachinid taxa of louis p mesnil with notes on nomenclature insecta diptera
    Canadian Entomologist, 1996
    Co-Authors: James E Ohara
    Abstract:

    Louis Paul Mesnil (1904–1986) wrote more than 90 published articles on the Tachinidae between 1936 and 1980. He proposed, in those works, a total of 172 new genus-group names and 838 new species-group names. These genus-group and species-group names are listed here along with annotations and a complete record of Mesnil’s publications on the Tachinidae. Certain nomenclatural problems concerning the taxa of Mesnil are addressed, namely difficulties arising from the fascicle format of the series “Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region”, determination of the type status of primary types (syntypes vs. holotypes), improperly labeled types in collections, taxa described in cryptic fashion, type depositories not slated or since changed, and manuscript names in collections. The rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature are followed to standardize usage of Mesnil’s names.

John K Moulton - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • molecular phylogeny and evolution of world Tachinidae diptera
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2019
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships within the diverse parasitoid fly family Tachinidae using four nuclear loci (7800 bp) and including an exceptionally large sample of more than 500 taxa from around the world. The position of the earthworm-parasitizing Polleniinae (Calliphoridae s.l.) as sister to Tachinidae is strongly supported. Our analyses recovered each of the four tachinid subfamilies and most recognized tribes, with some important exceptions in the Dexiinae and Tachininae. Most notably, the tachinine tribes Macquartiini and Myiophasiini form a clade sister to all other Tachinidae, and a clade of Palpostomatini is reconstructed as sister to Dexiinae + Phasiinae. Although most nodes are well-supported, relationships within several lineages that appear to have undergone rapid episodes of diversification (basal Dexiinae and Tachininae, Blondeliini) were poorly resolved. Reconstructions of host use evolution are equivocal, but generally support the hypothesis that the ancestral host of tachinids was a beetle and that subsequent host shifts to caterpillars may coincide with accelerated diversification. Evolutionary reconstructions of reproductive strategy using alternative methods were incongruent, however it is most likely that ancestral tachinids possessed unincubated, thick shelled eggs from which incubated eggs evolved repeatedly, potentially expanding available host niches. These results provide a broad foundation for understanding the phylogeny and evolution of this important family of parasitoid insects. We hope it will serve as a framework to be used in concert with morphology and other sources of evidence to revise the higher taxonomic classification of Tachinidae and further explore their evolutionary history and diversification.

  • explosive radiation or uninformative genes origin and early diversification of tachinid flies diptera Tachinidae
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2015
    Co-Authors: John O. Stireman, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E Ohara, Jeremy D Blaschke, Isaac S Winkler, Daniel J Davis, John K Moulton
    Abstract:

    Abstract Molecular phylogenetic studies at all taxonomic levels often infer rapid radiation events based on short, poorly resolved internodes. While such rapid episodes of diversification are an important and widespread evolutionary phenomenon, much of this poor phylogenetic resolution may be attributed to the continuing widespread use of “traditional” markers (mitochondrial, ribosomal, and some nuclear protein-coding genes) that are often poorly suited to resolve difficult, higher-level phylogenetic problems. Here we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among a representative set of taxa of the parasitoid fly family Tachinidae and related outgroups of the superfamily Oestroidea. The Tachinidae are one of the most species rich, yet evolutionarily recent families of Diptera, providing an ideal case study for examining the differential performance of loci in resolving phylogenetic relationships and the benefits of adding more loci to phylogenetic analyses. We assess the phylogenetic utility of nine genes including both traditional genes (e.g., CO1 mtDNA, 28S rDNA) and nuclear protein-coding genes newly developed for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic findings, based on a limited set of taxa, include: a close relationship between Tachinidae and the calliphorid subfamily Polleninae, monophyly of Tachinidae and the subfamilies Exoristinae and Dexiinae, subfamily groupings of Dexiinae + Phasiinae and Tachininae + Exoristinae, and robust phylogenetic placement of the somewhat enigmatic genera Strongygaster, Euthera, and Ceracia. In contrast to poor resolution and phylogenetic incongruence of “traditional genes,” we find that a more selective set of highly informative genes is able to more precisely identify regions of the phylogeny that experienced rapid radiation of lineages, while more accurately depicting their phylogenetic context. Although much expanded taxon sampling is necessary to effectively assess the monophyly of and relationships among major tachinid lineages and their relatives, we show that a small number of well-chosen nuclear protein-coding genes can successfully resolve even difficult phylogenetic problems.