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Actinomycetoma

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Mohamed E Hamid – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Diversity and geographic distribution of soil streptomycetes with antagonistic potential against Actinomycetoma-causing Streptomyces sudanensis in Sudan and South Sudan
    BMC Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Mohamed E Hamid, Thomas Reitz, Martin R. P. Joseph, Kerstin Hommel, Adil Mahgoub, Mogahid M. Elhassan, François Buscot, Mika Tarkka

    Abstract:

    Background Production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors affects soil microbial community composition and contributes to disease suppression. In this work, we characterized whether Streptomyces bacteria, prolific antibiotics producers, inhibit a soil borne human pathogenic microorganism, Streptomyces sudanensis. S. sudanensis represents the major causal agent of Actinomycetoma – a largely under-studied and dreadful subcutaneous disease of humans in the tropics and subtropics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro S. sudanensis inhibitory potential of soil streptomycetes isolated from different sites in Sudan, including areas with frequent (mycetoma belt) and rare Actinomycetoma cases of illness. Results Using selective media, 173 Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 17 sites representing three ecoregions and different vegetation and ecological subdivisions in Sudan. In total, 115 strains of the 173 (66.5%) displayed antagonism against S. sudanensis with different levels of inhibition. Strains isolated from the South Saharan steppe and woodlands ecoregion (Northern Sudan) exhibited higher inhibitory potential than those strains isolated from the East Sudanian savanna ecoregion located in the south and southeastern Sudan, or the strains isolated from the Sahelian Acacia savanna ecoregion located in central and western Sudan. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, isolates were predominantly related to Streptomyces werraensis , S. enissocaesilis , S. griseostramineus and S. prasinosporus . Three clusters of isolates were related to strains that have previously been isolated from human and animal Actinomycetoma cases: SD524 ( Streptomyces sp. subclade 6), SD528 ( Streptomyces griseostramineus ) and SD552 ( Streptomyces werraensis ). Conclusion The in vitro inhibitory potential against S. sudanensis was proven for more than half of the soil streptomycetes isolates in this study and this potential may contribute to suppressing the abundance and virulence of S. sudanensis . The streptomycetes isolated from the mycetoma free South Saharan steppe ecoregion show the highest average inhibitory potential. Further analyses suggest that mainly soil properties and rainfall modulate the structure and function of Streptomyces species, including their antagonistic activity against S. sudanensis.

  • diversity and geographic distribution of soil streptomycetes with antagonistic potential against Actinomycetoma causing streptomyces sudanensis in sudan and south sudan
    BMC Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Mohamed E Hamid, Thomas Reitz, Martin R. P. Joseph, Kerstin Hommel, Adil Mahgoub, Mogahid M. Elhassan, François Buscot, Mika Tarkka

    Abstract:

    Production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors affects soil microbial community composition and contributes to disease suppression. In this work, we characterized whether Streptomyces bacteria, prolific antibiotics producers, inhibit a soil borne human pathogenic microorganism, Streptomyces sudanensis. S. sudanensis represents the major causal agent of Actinomycetoma – a largely under-studied and dreadful subcutaneous disease of humans in the tropics and subtropics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro S. sudanensis inhibitory potential of soil streptomycetes isolated from different sites in Sudan, including areas with frequent (mycetoma belt) and rare Actinomycetoma cases of illness. Using selective media, 173 Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 17 sites representing three ecoregions and different vegetation and ecological subdivisions in Sudan. In total, 115 strains of the 173 (66.5%) displayed antagonism against S. sudanensis with different levels of inhibition. Strains isolated from the South Saharan steppe and woodlands ecoregion (Northern Sudan) exhibited higher inhibitory potential than those strains isolated from the East Sudanian savanna ecoregion located in the south and southeastern Sudan, or the strains isolated from the Sahelian Acacia savanna ecoregion located in central and western Sudan. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, isolates were predominantly related to Streptomyces werraensis, S. enissocaesilis, S. griseostramineus and S. prasinosporus. Three clusters of isolates were related to strains that have previously been isolated from human and animal Actinomycetoma cases: SD524 (Streptomyces sp. subclade 6), SD528 (Streptomyces griseostramineus) and SD552 (Streptomyces werraensis). The in vitro inhibitory potential against S. sudanensis was proven for more than half of the soil streptomycetes isolates in this study and this potential may contribute to suppressing the abundance and virulence of S. sudanensis. The streptomycetes isolated from the mycetoma free South Saharan steppe ecoregion show the highest average inhibitory potential. Further analyses suggest that mainly soil properties and rainfall modulate the structure and function of Streptomyces species, including their antagonistic activity against S. sudanensis.

  • the use of morphological and cell wall chemical markers in the identification of streptomyces species associated with Actinomycetoma
    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Mohamed E Hamid

    Abstract:

    Most aerobic, filamentous, spore-forming actinomycetes are saprophytes but some are considered pathogens of humans and animals, notable examples are the causal agents of mycetoma. The present study aimed to identify Streptomyces spp. isolated from Actinomycetoma cases in Sudan by examining some morphological traits and analyzing the cell wall composition. Nineteen Streptomyces strains isolated from purulent materials of patients with mycetoma (human) or fistulous withers (donkeys) were included in the study. Isolates were tentatively identified as Streptomyces species based on morphological and cultural characteristics. Cell wall analysis of isolates yielded LLdiaminopimelic acid (LL-DAP) which authenticates that the isolates are members of genus Streptomyces . The isolates, though they are Streptomyces, but are variable phenotypes. The study concluded that using few selected criteria, as above, would allow identification of unknown Actinomycetoma agent to the genus level. The study also assumes that apparently limitless, numbers of saprophytic Streptomyces enter human or animal skin tissue causing Actinomycetoma and perhaps other complications in man and animals. KEYWORDS: Actinomycetoma, Streptomyces species, Madura foot, Sudan

Oliverio Welsh – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • climate soil type and geographic distribution of Actinomycetoma cases in northeast mexico a cross sectional study
    PLOS ONE, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jesus Alberto Cardenasde La Garza, Oliverio Welsh, Jorge Ocampocandiani, Adrian Cuellarbarboza, Karina Paola Suarezsanchez, Estephania De La Cruzvaladez, Luis Gerardo Cruzgomez, Lucio Veracabrera

    Abstract:

    Background
    Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissue, that may involve deep structures and bone. It can be caused by bacteria (Actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma). There is an epidemiological association between mycetoma and the environment, including rainfall, temperature and humidity but there are still many knowledge gaps in the identification of the natural habitat of actinomycetes, their primary reservoir, and their precise geographical distribution. Knowing the potential distribution of this infection and its ecological niche in endemic areas is relevant to determine disease management strategies and etiological agent habitat or reservoirs.

    Methodology/principal findings
    This was an ambispective descriptive study of 31 patients with Actinomycetoma. We determined the biophysical characteristics including temperature, precipitation, soil type, vegetation, etiological agents, and mapped Actinomycetoma cases in Northeast Mexico. We identified two disease cluster areas. One in Nuevo Leon, with a predominantly kastanozems soil type, with a mean annual temperature of 22°, and a mean annual precipitation of 585.2 mm. Herein, mycetoma cases were produced by Actinomadura pelletieri, Actinomadura madurae, Nocardia brasiliensis, and Nocardia spp. The second cluster was in San Luis Potosi, where lithosols soil type predominates, with a mean annual temperature of 23.5° and a mean annual precipitation of 635.4 mm. In this area, all the cases were caused by N. brasiliensis. A. madurae cases were identified in rendzinas, kastanozems, vertisols, and lithosols soils, and A. pelletieri cases in xerosols, kastanozems, and rendzinas soils. Previous thorn trauma with Acacia or Prosopis plants was referred by 35.4% of subjects. In these states, the presence of thorny plants, such as Acacia spp., Prosopis spp., Senegalia greggi, Vachellia farnesiana and Vachellia rigidula, are common.

    Conclusions/significance
    Mapping this neglected tropical infection aids in the detection of disease cluster areas, the development of public health strategies for early diagnosis and disease prediction models; this paves the way for more ecological niche etiological agent research.

  • clinical characteristics and treatment of Actinomycetoma in northeast mexico a case series
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jesus Alberto Cardenasde La Garza, Oliverio Welsh, Jorge Ocampocandiani, Adrian Cuellarbarboza, Karina Paola Suarezsanchez, Estephania De La Cruzvaladez, Luis Gerardo Cruzgomez, Anabel Gallardorocha, Lucio Veracabrera

    Abstract:

    Background
    Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease characterized by nodules, scars, abscesses, and fistulae that drain serous or purulent material containing the etiological agent. Mycetoma may be caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous aerobic bacteria (Actinomycetoma). Mycetoma is more frequent in the so-called mycetoma belt (latitude 15° south and 30° north around the Tropic of Cancer), especially in Sudan, Nigeria, Somalia, India, Mexico, and Venezuela. The introduction of new antibiotics with fewer side effects, broader susceptibility profiles, and different administration routes has made information on Actinomycetoma treatment and outcomes necessary. The objective of this report was to provide an update on clinical, therapeutic, and outcome data for patients with Actinomycetoma attending a reference center in northeast Mexico.

    Methodology/principal findings
    This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 31 patients (male to female ratio 3.4:1) diagnosed with Actinomycetoma by direct grain examination, histopathology, culture, or serology from January 2009 to September 2018. Most lesions were caused by Nocardia brasiliensis (83.9%) followed by Actinomadura madurae (12.9%) and Actinomadura pelletieri (3.2%). About 50% of patients had bone involvement, and the right leg was the most commonly affected region in 38.7% of cases. Farmers/agriculture workers were most commonly affected, representing 41.9% of patients. The most commonly used treatment regimen was the Welsh regimen (35.5% of cases), a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) plus amikacin, which had a 90% cure rate, followed by TMP/SMX plus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in 19.4% of cases with a cure rate of 100%. In our setting, 28 (90.3%) patients were completely cured and three (9.7%) were lost to follow-up. Four patients required multiple antibiotic regimens due to recurrences and adverse effects.

    Conclusions/significance
    In our sample, Actinomycetoma was predominantly caused by N. brasiliensis. Most cases responded well to therapy with a combination of TMP/SMX with amikacin or TMP/SMX and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Four patients required multiple antibiotics and intrahospital care.

  • Current Treatment of Mycetoma
    Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases, 2018
    Co-Authors: Oliverio Welsh, Jesus Alberto Cardenasde La Garza, Mario Cesar Salinas-carmona, Irene Montserrat Rodriguez-escamilla, Emmanuel Sanchez-meza

    Abstract:

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to update the status of treatment of Actinomycetoma and eumycetoma. Specific information is presented to describe the best medical management for uncomplicated and complicated actinomycetic and fungal mycetomas. Recent findings Localized Actinomycetoma that involves the skin without affecting underlying organs is treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for 3 to 12 months. In extensive infections with bone or deep organ involvement and in those with no therapeutic response, amikacin can be added. Duration of treatment varies from 5 to 20 weeks and will depend on clinical response, development of adverse effects, and patient comorbidities. Other antibiotics including diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, rifampicin, minocycline, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, and linezolid may be employed in different combinations in selected cases. If available, an antibiogram should guide antimicrobial therapy. Eumycetoma treatment includes itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and terbinafine. Surgery is indicated depending on disease extension, antifungal clinical response, and localization. Summary Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) is the drug of choice for actynomicetoma but amikacin can be added in complicated cases. When aminoglycosides are contraindicated, other antimicrobials can be employed; surgery is seldom indicated. In eumycetoma, itraconazole is currently the first-line therapy, and terbinafine can be added in complicated cases. Other azoles are unavailable or expensive. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies with different antimicrobials are currently underway for Actinomycetoma. In eumycetoma, a comparative double-blind randomized study with itraconazole and fosravuconazole along with surgical treatment is being carried out at the Mycetoma Research Center in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical awareness about mycetoma among physicians will allow a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

Mika Tarkka – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Diversity and geographic distribution of soil streptomycetes with antagonistic potential against Actinomycetoma-causing Streptomyces sudanensis in Sudan and South Sudan
    BMC Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Mohamed E Hamid, Thomas Reitz, Martin R. P. Joseph, Kerstin Hommel, Adil Mahgoub, Mogahid M. Elhassan, François Buscot, Mika Tarkka

    Abstract:

    Background Production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors affects soil microbial community composition and contributes to disease suppression. In this work, we characterized whether Streptomyces bacteria, prolific antibiotics producers, inhibit a soil borne human pathogenic microorganism, Streptomyces sudanensis. S. sudanensis represents the major causal agent of Actinomycetoma – a largely under-studied and dreadful subcutaneous disease of humans in the tropics and subtropics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro S. sudanensis inhibitory potential of soil streptomycetes isolated from different sites in Sudan, including areas with frequent (mycetoma belt) and rare Actinomycetoma cases of illness. Results Using selective media, 173 Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 17 sites representing three ecoregions and different vegetation and ecological subdivisions in Sudan. In total, 115 strains of the 173 (66.5%) displayed antagonism against S. sudanensis with different levels of inhibition. Strains isolated from the South Saharan steppe and woodlands ecoregion (Northern Sudan) exhibited higher inhibitory potential than those strains isolated from the East Sudanian savanna ecoregion located in the south and southeastern Sudan, or the strains isolated from the Sahelian Acacia savanna ecoregion located in central and western Sudan. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, isolates were predominantly related to Streptomyces werraensis , S. enissocaesilis , S. griseostramineus and S. prasinosporus . Three clusters of isolates were related to strains that have previously been isolated from human and animal Actinomycetoma cases: SD524 ( Streptomyces sp. subclade 6), SD528 ( Streptomyces griseostramineus ) and SD552 ( Streptomyces werraensis ). Conclusion The in vitro inhibitory potential against S. sudanensis was proven for more than half of the soil streptomycetes isolates in this study and this potential may contribute to suppressing the abundance and virulence of S. sudanensis . The streptomycetes isolated from the mycetoma free South Saharan steppe ecoregion show the highest average inhibitory potential. Further analyses suggest that mainly soil properties and rainfall modulate the structure and function of Streptomyces species, including their antagonistic activity against S. sudanensis.

  • diversity and geographic distribution of soil streptomycetes with antagonistic potential against Actinomycetoma causing streptomyces sudanensis in sudan and south sudan
    BMC Microbiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Mohamed E Hamid, Thomas Reitz, Martin R. P. Joseph, Kerstin Hommel, Adil Mahgoub, Mogahid M. Elhassan, François Buscot, Mika Tarkka

    Abstract:

    Production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors affects soil microbial community composition and contributes to disease suppression. In this work, we characterized whether Streptomyces bacteria, prolific antibiotics producers, inhibit a soil borne human pathogenic microorganism, Streptomyces sudanensis. S. sudanensis represents the major causal agent of Actinomycetoma – a largely under-studied and dreadful subcutaneous disease of humans in the tropics and subtropics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro S. sudanensis inhibitory potential of soil streptomycetes isolated from different sites in Sudan, including areas with frequent (mycetoma belt) and rare Actinomycetoma cases of illness. Using selective media, 173 Streptomyces isolates were recovered from 17 sites representing three ecoregions and different vegetation and ecological subdivisions in Sudan. In total, 115 strains of the 173 (66.5%) displayed antagonism against S. sudanensis with different levels of inhibition. Strains isolated from the South Saharan steppe and woodlands ecoregion (Northern Sudan) exhibited higher inhibitory potential than those strains isolated from the East Sudanian savanna ecoregion located in the south and southeastern Sudan, or the strains isolated from the Sahelian Acacia savanna ecoregion located in central and western Sudan. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, isolates were predominantly related to Streptomyces werraensis, S. enissocaesilis, S. griseostramineus and S. prasinosporus. Three clusters of isolates were related to strains that have previously been isolated from human and animal Actinomycetoma cases: SD524 (Streptomyces sp. subclade 6), SD528 (Streptomyces griseostramineus) and SD552 (Streptomyces werraensis). The in vitro inhibitory potential against S. sudanensis was proven for more than half of the soil streptomycetes isolates in this study and this potential may contribute to suppressing the abundance and virulence of S. sudanensis. The streptomycetes isolated from the mycetoma free South Saharan steppe ecoregion show the highest average inhibitory potential. Further analyses suggest that mainly soil properties and rainfall modulate the structure and function of Streptomyces species, including their antagonistic activity against S. sudanensis.