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Adipokinetic Hormone

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Gerd Gade – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • analysis of peptide ligand specificity of different insect Adipokinetic Hormone receptors
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2018
    Co-Authors: Elisabeth Marchal, Gerd Gade, Heather G Marco, Sam Schellens, Emilie Monjon, Evert Bruyninckx, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Heleen Verlinden

    Abstract:

    Adipokinetic Hormone (AKH) is a highly researched insect neuropeptide that induces the mobilization of carbohydrates and lipids from the fat body at times of high physical activity, such as flight and locomotion. As a naturally occurring ligand, AKH has undergone quite a number of amino acid changes throughout evolution, and in some insect species multiple AKHs are present. AKH acts by binding to a rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor, which is related to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing Hormone receptors. In the current study, we have cloned AKH receptors (AKHRs) from seven different species, covering a wide phylogenetic range of insect orders: the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera); the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera); the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera); the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera); and the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera). The agonistic activity of different insect AKHs, including the respective endogenous AKHs, at these receptors was tested with a bioluminescence-based assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. All receptors were activated by their endogenous ligand in the nanomolar range. Based on our data, we can refute the previously formulated hypothesis that a functional AKH signaling system is absent in the beneficial species, Apis mellifera. Furthermore, our data also suggest that some of the investigated AKH receptors, such as the mosquito AKHR, are more selective for the endogenous (conspecific) ligand, while others, such as the locust AKHR, are more promiscuous and can be activated by AKHs from many other insects. This information will be of high importance when further analyzing the potential use of AKHRs as targets for developing novel pest control agents.

  • Two novel tyrosine-containing peptides (Tyr^4) of the Adipokinetic Hormone family in beetles of the families Coccinellidae and Silphidae
    Amino Acids, 2015
    Co-Authors: Gerd Gade, Petr Simek, Heather G Marco

    Abstract:

    Novel members of the Adipokinetic Hormone family of peptides have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of beetles representing two families, the Silphidae and the Coccinellidae. A crude CC extract (0.3 gland equivalents) of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides , was active in mobilizing trehalose in a heterologous assay using the cockroach Periplaneta americana , whereas the CC extract (0.5 gland equivalents) of the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis , exhibited no hypertrehalosemic activity. Primary sequences of one Adipokinetic Hormone from each species were elucidated by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The multiple MS^N electrospray mass data revealed an octapeptide with an unusual tyrosine residue at position 4 for each species: pGlu-Leu-Thr-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for N. vespilloides (code-named Nicve-AKH) and pGlu-Ile-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for H. axyridis (code-named Harax-AKH). Assignment of the correct sequences was confirmed by synthesis of the peptides and co-elution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or by LC–MS. Moreover, synthetic peptides were shown to be active in the heterologous cockroach assay system, but Harax-AKH only at a dose of 30 pmol, which explains the negative result with the crude CC extract. It appears that the tyrosine residue at position 4 can be used as a diagnostic feature for certain beetle Adipokinetic peptides, because this feature has not been found in another order other than Coleoptera.

  • two novel tyrosine containing peptides tyr 4 of the Adipokinetic Hormone family in beetles of the families coccinellidae and silphidae
    Amino Acids, 2015
    Co-Authors: Gerd Gade, Petr Simek, Heather G Marco

    Abstract:

    Novel members of the Adipokinetic Hormone family of peptides have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of beetles representing two families, the Silphidae and the Coccinellidae. A crude CC extract (0.3 gland equivalents) of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, was active in mobilizing trehalose in a heterologous assay using the cockroach Periplaneta americana, whereas the CC extract (0.5 gland equivalents) of the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, exhibited no hypertrehalosemic activity. Primary sequences of one Adipokinetic Hormone from each species were elucidated by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The multiple MSN electrospray mass data revealed an octapeptide with an unusual tyrosine residue at position 4 for each species: pGlu-Leu-Thr-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for N. vespilloides (code-named Nicve-AKH) and pGlu-Ile-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for H. axyridis (code-named Harax-AKH). Assignment of the correct sequences was confirmed by synthesis of the peptides and co-elution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or by LC–MS. Moreover, synthetic peptides were shown to be active in the heterologous cockroach assay system, but Harax-AKH only at a dose of 30 pmol, which explains the negative result with the crude CC extract. It appears that the tyrosine residue at position 4 can be used as a diagnostic feature for certain beetle Adipokinetic peptides, because this feature has not been found in another order other than Coleoptera.

Ian Orchard – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • identification and characterization of the Adipokinetic Hormone corazonin related peptide signaling system in rhodnius prolixus
    FEBS Journal, 2015
    Co-Authors: Meet Zandawala, Amir Haddad, Zina Hamoudi, Ian Orchard

    Abstract:

    The mammalian gonadotropin-releasing Hormone is evolutionarily related to the arthropod Adipokinetic Hormone and the recently discovered Adipokinetic Hormone/corazonin-related peptide (ACP). The function of the ACP signaling system in arthropods is currently unknown. In the present study, we identify and characterize the ACP signaling system in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We isolated the complete cDNA sequence encoding R. prolixus ACP (Rhopr-ACP) and examined its expression pattern. Rhopr-ACP is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. In particular, it is found in both the brain and corpus cardiacum (CC)/corpora allata (CA) complex. To gain an insight into its role in R. prolixus, we also isolated and functionally characterized cDNA sequences of three splice variants (Rhopr-ACPR-A, B and C) encoding R. prolixus ACP G protein-coupled receptor (Rhopr-ACPR). Rhopr-ACPR-A has only five transmembrane domains, whereas Rhopr-ACPR-B and C have all seven domains. Interestingly, Rhopr-ACPR-A, B and C were all activated by Rhopr-ACP, albeit at different sensitivities, when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the human G-protein G16 (CHO/G16). To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate a truncated receptor cDNA in invertebrates that is functional in a heterologous expression system. Moreover, Rhopr-ACPR-B and C but not Rhopr-ACPR-A can be coupled with Gq α subunits. Expression profiling indicates that Rhopr-ACPR is highly expressed in the central nervous system, as well as the CC/CA complex, suggesting that it may control the release of other Hormones found in the CC in a manner analogous to gonadotropin-releasing Hormone. Temporal expression profiling shows that both Rhopr-ACP and Rhopr-ACPR are upregulated after ecdysis, suggesting that this neuropeptide may be involved in processes associated with post-ecdysis.

  • Identification and characterization of the Adipokinetic Hormone/corazonin‐related peptide signaling system in Rhodnius prolixus
    FEBS Journal, 2015
    Co-Authors: Meet Zandawala, Amir Haddad, Zina Hamoudi, Ian Orchard

    Abstract:

    The mammalian gonadotropin-releasing Hormone is evolutionarily related to the arthropod Adipokinetic Hormone and the recently discovered Adipokinetic Hormone/corazonin-related peptide (ACP). The function of the ACP signaling system in arthropods is currently unknown. In the present study, we identify and characterize the ACP signaling system in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We isolated the complete cDNA sequence encoding R. prolixus ACP (Rhopr-ACP) and examined its expression pattern. Rhopr-ACP is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. In particular, it is found in both the brain and corpus cardiacum (CC)/corpora allata (CA) complex. To gain an insight into its role in R. prolixus, we also isolated and functionally characterized cDNA sequences of three splice variants (Rhopr-ACPR-A, B and C) encoding R. prolixus ACP G protein-coupled receptor (Rhopr-ACPR). Rhopr-ACPR-A has only five transmembrane domains, whereas Rhopr-ACPR-B and C have all seven domains. Interestingly, Rhopr-ACPR-A, B and C were all activated by Rhopr-ACP, albeit at different sensitivities, when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the human G-protein G16 (CHO/G16). To our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate a truncated receptor cDNA in invertebrates that is functional in a heterologous expression system. Moreover, Rhopr-ACPR-B and C but not Rhopr-ACPR-A can be coupled with Gq α subunits. Expression profiling indicates that Rhopr-ACPR is highly expressed in the central nervous system, as well as the CC/CA complex, suggesting that it may control the release of other Hormones found in the CC in a manner analogous to gonadotropin-releasing Hormone. Temporal expression profiling shows that both Rhopr-ACP and Rhopr-ACPR are upregulated after ecdysis, suggesting that this neuropeptide may be involved in processes associated with post-ecdysis.

  • Adipokinetic Hormone signalling system in the chagas disease vector rhodnius prolixus
    Insect Molecular Biology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Meet Zandawala, Angela B Lange, Zina Hamoudi, Ian Orchard

    Abstract:

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors are widespread throughout Metazoa and in several cases, clear orthologues can be identified in both protostomes and deuterostomes. One such neuropeptide is the insect Adipokinetic Hormone (AKH), which is related to the mammalian gonadotropinreleasing Hormone. AKH has been studied extensively and is known to mobilize lipid, carbohydrates and proline for energy-consuming activities such as flight. In order to determine the possible roles for this signalling system in Rhodnius prolixus, we isolated the cDNA sequences encoding R. prolixus AKH (Rhopr-AKH) and its receptor (Rhopr-AKHR). We also examined their spatial expression pattern using quantitative PCR. Our expression analysis indicates that Rhopr-AKH is only expressed in the corpus cardiacum of fifth-instars and adults. Rhopr-AKHR ,b y contrast, is expressed in several peripheral tissues including the fat body. The expression of the receptor in the fat body suggests that AKH is involved in lipid mobilization, which was confirmed by knockdown of Rhopr-AKHR via RNA interference. Adult males that had been injected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for Rhopr-AKHR exhibited increased lipid content in the fat body and decreased lipid levels in the haemolymph. Moreover, injection of Rhopr-AKH in Rhopr-AKHR dsRNA-treated males failed to elevate haemolymph lipid levels, confirming that this is indeed the receptor for Rhopr-AKH.

Heather G Marco – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • analysis of peptide ligand specificity of different insect Adipokinetic Hormone receptors
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2018
    Co-Authors: Elisabeth Marchal, Gerd Gade, Heather G Marco, Sam Schellens, Emilie Monjon, Evert Bruyninckx, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Heleen Verlinden

    Abstract:

    Adipokinetic Hormone (AKH) is a highly researched insect neuropeptide that induces the mobilization of carbohydrates and lipids from the fat body at times of high physical activity, such as flight and locomotion. As a naturally occurring ligand, AKH has undergone quite a number of amino acid changes throughout evolution, and in some insect species multiple AKHs are present. AKH acts by binding to a rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor, which is related to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing Hormone receptors. In the current study, we have cloned AKH receptors (AKHRs) from seven different species, covering a wide phylogenetic range of insect orders: the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera); the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera); the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera); the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera); and the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera). The agonistic activity of different insect AKHs, including the respective endogenous AKHs, at these receptors was tested with a bioluminescence-based assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. All receptors were activated by their endogenous ligand in the nanomolar range. Based on our data, we can refute the previously formulated hypothesis that a functional AKH signaling system is absent in the beneficial species, Apis mellifera. Furthermore, our data also suggest that some of the investigated AKH receptors, such as the mosquito AKHR, are more selective for the endogenous (conspecific) ligand, while others, such as the locust AKHR, are more promiscuous and can be activated by AKHs from many other insects. This information will be of high importance when further analyzing the potential use of AKHRs as targets for developing novel pest control agents.

  • Two novel tyrosine-containing peptides (Tyr^4) of the Adipokinetic Hormone family in beetles of the families Coccinellidae and Silphidae
    Amino Acids, 2015
    Co-Authors: Gerd Gade, Petr Simek, Heather G Marco

    Abstract:

    Novel members of the Adipokinetic Hormone family of peptides have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of beetles representing two families, the Silphidae and the Coccinellidae. A crude CC extract (0.3 gland equivalents) of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides , was active in mobilizing trehalose in a heterologous assay using the cockroach Periplaneta americana , whereas the CC extract (0.5 gland equivalents) of the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis , exhibited no hypertrehalosemic activity. Primary sequences of one Adipokinetic Hormone from each species were elucidated by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The multiple MS^N electrospray mass data revealed an octapeptide with an unusual tyrosine residue at position 4 for each species: pGlu-Leu-Thr-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for N. vespilloides (code-named Nicve-AKH) and pGlu-Ile-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for H. axyridis (code-named Harax-AKH). Assignment of the correct sequences was confirmed by synthesis of the peptides and co-elution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or by LC–MS. Moreover, synthetic peptides were shown to be active in the heterologous cockroach assay system, but Harax-AKH only at a dose of 30 pmol, which explains the negative result with the crude CC extract. It appears that the tyrosine residue at position 4 can be used as a diagnostic feature for certain beetle Adipokinetic peptides, because this feature has not been found in another order other than Coleoptera.

  • two novel tyrosine containing peptides tyr 4 of the Adipokinetic Hormone family in beetles of the families coccinellidae and silphidae
    Amino Acids, 2015
    Co-Authors: Gerd Gade, Petr Simek, Heather G Marco

    Abstract:

    Novel members of the Adipokinetic Hormone family of peptides have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of beetles representing two families, the Silphidae and the Coccinellidae. A crude CC extract (0.3 gland equivalents) of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, was active in mobilizing trehalose in a heterologous assay using the cockroach Periplaneta americana, whereas the CC extract (0.5 gland equivalents) of the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, exhibited no hypertrehalosemic activity. Primary sequences of one Adipokinetic Hormone from each species were elucidated by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The multiple MSN electrospray mass data revealed an octapeptide with an unusual tyrosine residue at position 4 for each species: pGlu-Leu-Thr-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for N. vespilloides (code-named Nicve-AKH) and pGlu-Ile-Asn-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide for H. axyridis (code-named Harax-AKH). Assignment of the correct sequences was confirmed by synthesis of the peptides and co-elution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or by LC–MS. Moreover, synthetic peptides were shown to be active in the heterologous cockroach assay system, but Harax-AKH only at a dose of 30 pmol, which explains the negative result with the crude CC extract. It appears that the tyrosine residue at position 4 can be used as a diagnostic feature for certain beetle Adipokinetic peptides, because this feature has not been found in another order other than Coleoptera.