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Blas Lavandero – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Do hedgerows influence the natural biological control of woolly apple aphids in orchards?Journal of Pest Science, 2020Co-Authors: Ainara Peñalver-cruz, Diego Alvarez, Blas LavanderoAbstract:
The provision of refuges for natural enemies could be a key aspect for the management of the woolly apple aphid [ Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann, 1802)] (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in apple orchards. The present study assesses the effects of Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) (firethorn) adjacent to apple orchards as this extra-orchard habitat would positively affect the abundance of natural enemies and control of E. lanigerum . Abundances were evaluated for the pest, the parasitoid, Aphelinus Mali (Haldeman, 1851) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) (during two seasons) and generalist predators (only during the second season). The assessments were conducted at different distances from P. coccinea located at the edge of the apple orchards. Additionally, parasitism rates by A. Mali were examined using a categorical and two quantitative methods. Results indicate that P. coccinea hedges promoted an early colonization by A. Mali in apple orchards especially during the first season. However, parasitism rates by A. Mali were not affected at the beginning of the season, but as the season progressed, the rates increased on the apple trees in comparison with the hedges. Additionally, during the second season, the interaction between certain natural enemies had a stronger effect on the population growth rates of E. lanigerum in orchards with P. coccinea compared to control orchards. Based on these results, we conclude that P. coccinea hedges may promote the early colonization by A. Mali in the orchards and have a positive effect on the abundance of spiders, but had no effect on coccinelid, carabids, earwigs and syrphids.
Host acceptance behavior of the parasitoid Aphelinus Mali and its aphid-host Eriosoma lanigerum on two Rosaceae plant speciesJournal of Pest Science, 2013Co-Authors: Sebastián A. Ortiz-martínez, Claudio C. Ramírez, Blas LavanderoAbstract:
The presence of a natural enemy in a habitat refuge is no guarantee of emigration by these into crop fields, when pest population outbreaks occur. Parasitoids from a refuge may not prefer foraging on the pest crop, exhibiting host fidelity, and therefore not constituting a source of natural enemies for improving biological control. An effective refuge must not only be a suitable sink for natural enemies, providing an acceptable host when these are not present in the crop, but it must also be a suitable source of parasitoids that readily accept the aphid-host on the crop. Therefore, crop-originated parasitoids would have to accept pests from the refuge as hosts to lay eggs in, and refuge-originated parasitoids would have to accept and lay eggs in pests from the crop. We here study the host fidelity of populations of Eriosoma lanigerum originating from two host plants (firethorn and apple) through reciprocal transfer experiments. Thereafter, the host fidelity of parasitoids from populations in the two host plants (firethorn and apple) was assessed. Reciprocal transfer experiments of parasitoids did not show an association between apple-originated parasitoids and their preference for any of the aphid hosts. Conversely, parasitoids from firethorn exhibited a higher number of attacks and in less time when aphids from apple were offered, suggesting a preference for apple-originated aphids. If future field work confirms these findings, firethorn could become an important management tool for enhancing biological control of woolly apple aphid in apple orchards, without being a substantial source of aphids.
estimating gene flow between refuges and crops a case study of the biological control of eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus Mali in apple orchardsPLOS ONE, 2011Co-Authors: Blas Lavandero, Christian C Figueroa, Pierre Franck, Angela MendezAbstract:
Parasitoid disturbance populations in agroecosystems can be maintained through the provision of habitat refuges with host resources. However, specialized herbivores that feed on different host plants have been shown to form host-specialized races. Parasitoids may subsequently specialize on these herbivore host races and therefore prefer parasitizing insects from the refuge, avoiding foraging on the crop. Evidence is therefore required that parasitoids are able to move between the refuge and the crop and that the refuge is a source of parasitoids, without being an important source of herbivore pests. A North-South transect trough the Chilean Central Valley was sampled, including apple orchards and surrounding Pyracantha coccinea (M. Roem) (Rosales: Rosacea) hedges that were host of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a globally important aphid pest of cultivated apples. At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging hymenopteran parasitoid Aphelinus Mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid and parasitoid individuals were genotyped using species-specific microsatellite loci and genetic variability was assessed. By studying genetic variation, natural geographic barriers of the aphid pest became evident and some evidence for incipient host-plant specialization was found. However, this had no effect on the population-genetic features of its most important parasitoid. In conclusion, the lack of genetic differentiation among the parasitoids suggests the existence of a single large and panmictic population, which could parasite aphids on apple orchards and on P. coccinea hedges. The latter could thus comprise a suitable and putative refuge for parasitoids, which could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the aphid suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from P. cocinnea hedges. Finally, we propose that the putative refuge could act as a source of parasitoids without being a major source of aphids.
J T S Walker – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
vulnerability of pest management in new zealand apples pesticide toxicity to Aphelinus Mali hymenoptera encyrtidaeNew Zealand Plant Protection, 2015Co-Authors: D J Rogers, P L Lo, J T S WalkerAbstract:
New pest management practices in New Zealand’s apple sector have provided ecological and economic outcomes that are recognised by growers and exporters. Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) pest control systems that combine biological control, selective insecticides and mating disruption have been developed to achieve these outcomes. Although pest management in apple orchards is now more sustainable, it is also highly vulnerable to pesticide-induced disruption. The toxicity of four pesticides (spinetoram, thiacloprid, spinosad and spirotetramat) on the natural enemy of woolly apple aphid, Aphelinus Mali, was examined. While applications of spinetoram were the primary cause of aphid outbreaks in 2007-08, other insecticides can contribute to the instability of this biocontrol system. The consequences of applying these disruptive pesticides to aphid control are discussed, together with strategies to mitigate the vulnerability of the IFP programme to pest outbreaks.
toxicity of pesticides to Aphelinus Mali the parasitoid of woolly apple aphidNew Zealand Plant Protection, 2011Co-Authors: D J Rogers, N Sharma, D C Stretton, J T S WalkerAbstract:
The parasitoid Aphelinus Mali controls woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum) in New Zealand apple orchards. The effects of seven pesticides on A. Mali exposed to residues on filter paper were assessed in a laboratory bioassay immediately post- application. Spinosad at label rate was moderately to highly toxic, but other compounds and lower rates of spinosad had no detrimental effects on A. Mali. Another bioassay incorporating field application and exposure to aged residues on leaves determined the toxicity of carbaryl, diazinon, indoxacarb and lime sulphur. Carbaryl had the greatest residual toxicity to A. Mali on harvested leaves, causing 85% mortality 21 days after application, declining to 40% by 28 days. In contrast, diazinon initially caused high mortality but residues were not toxic 15 days after application, while indoxyacarb and lime sulphur were not toxic. Minimising the use of pesticides toxic to A. Mali should benefit the sustainable management of WAA in apple orchards.
effect of orchard pesticides on Aphelinus Mali the woolly apple aphid parasitoidProceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, 1997Co-Authors: S J Bradley, V C Murrell, P W Shaw, J T S WalkerAbstract:
A laboratory bioassay and field trials were used to evaluate the effect of 31 pesticides on Aphelinus Mali, a parasitoid of woolly apple aphid. Adults were caged for 16 hours in Petri dishes containing treated filter paper. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon and pyrethrum were highly toxic, while azinphos-methyl and omethoate showed low to moderate toxicity. In a field study, orchard blocks were treated with chlorpyrifos plus oil, buprofezin plus oil, oil, diazinon, carbaryl and pirimicarb. The number of adultA. Mali caught in white sticky traps was reduced in the chlorpyrifos and carbaryl treatments. The implications for woolly apple aphid control in an Integrated Fruit Production programme are discussed.
Hongxu Zhou – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
differentiation of symbiotic bacteria is a new evidence for two genetic clades of Aphelinus Mali hymenoptera aphelinidae in chinaOriental Insects, 2019Co-Authors: Min Du, Jianing Yu, Yunjiao Zhou, Xueying Wang, Hongxu ZhouAbstract:
ABSTRACTAphelinus Mali is an important endoparasitoid of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). In our previous study, A. Mali in China was divided into two genetic clades, named the…
temperature adaptability of two clades of Aphelinus Mali hymenoptera aphelinidae in chinaEgyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 2018Co-Authors: Min Su, Qinmin Yang, Hongxu ZhouAbstract:
Aphelinus Mali (Haldeman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is an effective natural enemy used in China to control the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum [Hausmann]) (WAA). Population of A. Mali in China falls into two distinct genetic clades (Shandong clades and Liaoning clades). In the present results, the developmental threshold temperature of the Shandong clade (9.82 ± 1.44 °C) was lower than that of the Liaoning clade (10.72 ± 0.24 °C), while the effective accumulated temperature of the Shandong clade needed for development from oviposition to adult eclosion (126.45 ± 16.81 day-degree) was significantly higher than that of the Liaoning clade (107.99 ± 3.44 day-degree). The supercooling and freezing points of the Liaoning clade (− 27.66 °C, − 27.17 °C) were significantly lower than those of the Shandong clade (− 26.04 °C, − 25.54 °C). Some other differences between the two clades as well were the content of fat, trehalose, and protein of overwintering larvae of the Liaoning clade (60.8%, 7.57 μg/one insect, 10.11 μg/one insect) as these were significantly higher than those of the Shandong clade (45.5%, 5.73 μg/one insect, 8.05 μg/one insect). The occurrence of the first adult emergence of the Shandong clade of A. Mali was earlier in the year than that of the Liaoning clade, allowing this clade to better control WAA in early spring. Meanwhile, the developmental duration from oviposition to adult emergence of the Shandong clade was longer than that of the Liaoning clade, and the cold tolerance of one of these, the more northerly Liaoning clade, is greater than that of the other, the more southerly Shandong clade. All of these factors imply differences in the pest control ability of the two clades of A. Mali in their respective regions.
laboratory comparison of two Aphelinus Mali clades for control of woolly apple aphid from hebei province chinaBulletin of Entomological Research, 2017Co-Authors: Min Su, Qinmin Yang, C Zhao, Hongxu ZhouAbstract:
Aphelinus Mali (Haldeman) is an effective natural enemy of woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Previous studies have found that, with WAA from Shandong Province (Qingdao) as the host, there are significant differences in various biological characteristics between a Shandong clade and Liaoning clade of A. Mali. The ability of the Shandong clade to control this aphid was significantly higher than that of the Liaoning clade in Shandong Province. In order to determine whether differences were caused by better adaptation of the Shandong parasitoid clade to the population of the host in that province or if it represents a more general fitness of this clade to control the host regardless of location, we compared the same parasitoid clades with hosts from Hebei Province. We found no significant differences in the developmental threshold temperature, effective accumulated temperature, fecundity, longevity, and oviposition period of the two clades, but the duration of host searching of the Shandong clade was significantly longer than that of the Liaoning clade. The instantaneous attack rate, the control ability (a/Th), the search parameter (Q) of the Shandong clade (0.0946, 0.543, 0.0725) of A. Mali were higher than that of the Liaoning clade (0.0713, 0.382, 0.0381), and therefore, with WAA from Hebei Province as the host, the host adaptability of the Shandong clade of A. Mali was not worse than that of the Liaoning clade, while the pest control ability of the Shandong clade was still greater than that of the Liaoning clade.