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Hong Liu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effect of solid waste fermentation substrate on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth in closed Artificial Ecosystem
    Life sciences in space research, 2020
    Co-Authors: Dianlei Liu, Beizhen Xie, Hui Liu, Yao Zhikai, Hong Liu

    Abstract:

    Abstract Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is a closed Artificial Ecosystem and could provide oxygen, food, water and other substrates for long-term deep space survival. The treatment and recycle of the solid waste are crucial and rate-limiting steps in BLSS, and it’s reported that the solid waste such as the inedible plants and human feces could be fermented aerobically and then reused as fertilizer for growing plants in BLSS, which may be an effective way to improve the solid waste recycling rate. However, the recycling performance and the effect on the system need to be evaluated. In this study, the fermented and decomposed solid waste product from the 365d BLSS experiment with human involved in Lunar Palace 1 was utilized, and was added to the Hoagland nutrient solution as a supplementary fertilizer in the weight proportion of 5% and 10%, respectively, for the cultivation of wheat (Group-5% and Group-10%). Then, the effects on wheat germination, morphology, photosynthesis, biomass, the conductivity of the cultured substrates and microorganisms were detected and compared with those of the CK group cultured using only Hoagland nutrient solution. The results showed that this planting method had no inhibitory effect on the wheat germination, root length and yield, and might even promote the vegetative growth of wheat in terms of Vigor index, plant height, leaf area and net photosynthesis rate to some extent. The added solid waste fermentation substrate as well as the planting environment in Lunar Palace 1 both had significant influences on the rhizosphere microorganisms of wheat. The bacteria diversity was more abundant than fungi at phylum level, and the relative abundance varied along with the wheat growth period. The relative abundance of the cellulose degrading microorganisms including Actinobacteria and Ascomycota increased in Group-5% and Group-10% compared with CK group along with the growth of wheat. Moreover, the proper reuse of the fermentation substrate could reduce the use of inorganic salts by 9.8%-11.9% and save 40L•m − 2 of water for wheat cultivation. This research has considerable application significance in future deep space exploration.

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  • effect of different light intensity on physiology antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic characteristics on wheat seedlings under high co2 concentration in a closed Artificial Ecosystem
    Photosynthesis Research, 2020
    Co-Authors: Jingjing Cui, Hong Liu

    Abstract:

    The growth of plants under high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (≥ 1000 ppm) is explored for the climate change and the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) environment of long-duration space missions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass cultivated for cereal grain—a global staple food including astronauts. Light and CO2 are both indispensable conditions for wheat seedlings. This study provides insights on the physiology, antioxidant capacity and photosynthetic characteristics of wheat seedlings under a range of photosynthetic photon flux densities in a closed system simulating BLSS with high CO2 concentration. We found that the Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, chlorophyll content, intrinsic water use efficiencies (WUEi), membrane stability index (MSI), and malondialdehyde (MDA) of wheat seedlings grown under an intermediate light intensity of 600 μmol m−2 s−1 environment were all largest. Interestingly, the high light intensity of 1200 mol m−2 s−1 treatment group exhibits the highest net photosynthetic rate but the lowest MDA content. The stomatal conductance and F0 of high light intensity of 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 treatment group were both significantly higher than that of other groups. Our study provides basic knowledge on the wheat growth in different environments, especially in a closed Ecosystem with Artificial lights.

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  • Semi-continuous fermentation of solid waste in closed Artificial Ecosystem: Microbial diversity, function genes evaluation.
    Life sciences in space research, 2019
    Co-Authors: Dianlei Liu, Beizhen Xie, Yingying Dong, Hong Liu

    Abstract:

    Abstract Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is a closed Artificial Ecosystem and could provide oxygen, food, water and other substances for space survival. Solid waste treatment is a key rate-limiting step in BLSS. In this study, solid wastes including wheat straw, human and yellow mealworm feces were disposed in a semi-continuous bio-convertor for 105 days in a ground-based experimental BLSS platform (Lunar Palace 1). Solid wastes at different periods were sampled and the microbial community variation, functional genes and metabolic pathways were analyzed. The results showed phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in all samples. While microbial community structures at genus level were significantly different, indicating selective enrichment during the 105-day process. The abundance of functional gene related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism was predicted higher on 45-day and 70-day. The metabolic pathway analysis revealed the degradation mechanisms and provided evidence for metabolic regulation.

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Christoph Hinz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • transpiration and plant water relations of evergreen woody vegetation on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem under seasonally dry conditions in western australia
    Hydrological Processes, 2012
    Co-Authors: Willis Gwenzi, Erik J. Veneklaas, Timothy M. Bleby, Isa A. M. Yunusa, Christoph Hinz

    Abstract:

    Understanding transpiration and plant physiological responses to environmental conditions is crucial for the design and management of vegetated engineered covers. Engineered covers rely on sustained transpiration to reduce the risk of deep drainage into potentially hazardous wastes, thereby minimizing contamination of water resources. This study quantified temporal trends of plant water potential (ψp), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration in a 4-year-old evergreen woody vegetation growing on an Artificial sandy substrate at a mine waste disposal facility. Transpiration averaged 0.7 mm day−1 in winter, when rainfall was frequent, but declined to 0.2 mm day−1 in the dry summer, when the plants were quite stressed. In winter, the mean ψp was −0.6 MPa at predawn and −1.5 MPa at midday, which were much higher than the corresponding summer values of −2.0 MPa and −4.8 MPa, respectively. The gs was also higher in winter (72.1–95.0 mmol m−2 s−1) than in summer (<30 mmol m−2 s−1), and negatively correlated with ψp (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.71–0.75), indicating strong stomatal control of transpiration in response to moisture stress. Total annual transpiration (147.2 mm) accounted for only 22% of the annual rainfall (673 mm), compared with 77% to 99% for woody vegetation in Western Australia. The low annual transpiration was attributed to the collective effects of a sparse and young vegetation, low moisture retention of the sandy substrate, and a superficial root system constrained by high subsoil pH. Amending the substrate with fine-textured materials should improve water storage of the substrate and enhance canopy growth and deep rooting, while further reducing the risk of deep drainage during the early stages of vegetation establishment and in the long term. Overall, this study highlights the need to understand substrate properties, vegetation characteristics, and rainfall patterns when designing Artificial Ecosystems to achieve specific hydrological functions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Transpiration and plant water relations of evergreen woody vegetation on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem under seasonally dry conditions in Western Australia
    Hydrological Processes, 2012
    Co-Authors: Willis Gwenzi, Erik J. Veneklaas, Timothy M. Bleby, Isa A. M. Yunusa, Christoph Hinz

    Abstract:

    Understanding transpiration and plant physiological responses to environmental conditions is crucial for the design and management of vegetated engineered covers. Engineered covers rely on sustained transpiration to reduce the risk of deep drainage into potentially hazardous wastes, thereby minimizing contamination of water resources. This study quantified temporal trends of plant water potential (ψp), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration in a 4-year-old evergreen woody vegetation growing on an Artificial sandy substrate at a mine waste disposal facility. Transpiration averaged 0.7 mm day−1 in winter, when rainfall was frequent, but declined to 0.2 mm day−1 in the dry summer, when the plants were quite stressed. In winter, the mean ψp was −0.6 MPa at predawn and −1.5 MPa at midday, which were much higher than the corresponding summer values of −2.0 MPa and −4.8 MPa, respectively. The gs was also higher in winter (72.1–95.0 mmol m−2 s−1) than in summer (

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  • field scale spatial variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem
    Geoderma, 2011
    Co-Authors: Willis Gwenzi, Christoph Hinz, Karen W Holmes, I R Phillips, Ian J Mullins

    Abstract:

    Abstract Saturated hydraulic conductivity ( K s ) influences water storage and movement, and is a key parameter of water and solute transport models. Systematic field evaluation of K s and its spatial variability for recently constructed Artificial Ecosystems is still lacking. The objectives of the present study were; (1) to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity of an Artificial Ecosystem using field methods (Philip–Dunne, and Guelph permeameters), and compare their results to the constant-head laboratory method; (2) to evaluate the spatial variability of K s using univariate and geostatistical analyses, and (3) to evaluate the ability of five pedotransfer functions to predict K s . The results showed that K s varied significantly (p  K s values were very high for all methods (38.6–77.9 m day − 1 ), exceeding values for natural sandy soils by several orders of magnitude. The high K s values and low coefficients of variation (26–44%) were comparable to that of well-sorted unconsolidated marine sands. Geostatistical analysis revealed a spatial structure in surface K s data described by a spherical model with a correlation range of 8 m. The resulting kriged map of surface K s showed alternating bands of high and low values, consistent with surface structures created by wheel tracks of construction equipment. Vertical K s was also spatially structured, with a short correlation range of 40 cm, presumably indicative of layering caused by post-construction mobilization and deposition of fine particles. K s was linearly and negatively correlated with dry soil bulk density (ρ b ) (r 2  = 0.73), and to a lesser extent silt plus clay percentage ( Si  +  C ) (r 2  = 0.21). Combining both ρ b and Si  +  C significantly (p  K s (r 2  = 0.76). However, evaluation of five PTFs developed for natural soils showed that they all underestimated K s by an order of magnitude, suggesting that application of water balance simulation models based on such PTFs to the present study site may constitute a bias in model outputs. Overall, the study demonstrated the influence of material handling, construction procedures and post-construction processes on the magnitude and spatial variability of K s on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem. These unique hydraulic properties may have profound impacts on soil moisture storage, plant water relations and water balance fluxes on Artificial Ecosystems, particularly where such landforms are intended to restore pre-disturbance ecological and hydrological functions.

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Willis Gwenzi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • transpiration and plant water relations of evergreen woody vegetation on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem under seasonally dry conditions in western australia
    Hydrological Processes, 2012
    Co-Authors: Willis Gwenzi, Erik J. Veneklaas, Timothy M. Bleby, Isa A. M. Yunusa, Christoph Hinz

    Abstract:

    Understanding transpiration and plant physiological responses to environmental conditions is crucial for the design and management of vegetated engineered covers. Engineered covers rely on sustained transpiration to reduce the risk of deep drainage into potentially hazardous wastes, thereby minimizing contamination of water resources. This study quantified temporal trends of plant water potential (ψp), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration in a 4-year-old evergreen woody vegetation growing on an Artificial sandy substrate at a mine waste disposal facility. Transpiration averaged 0.7 mm day−1 in winter, when rainfall was frequent, but declined to 0.2 mm day−1 in the dry summer, when the plants were quite stressed. In winter, the mean ψp was −0.6 MPa at predawn and −1.5 MPa at midday, which were much higher than the corresponding summer values of −2.0 MPa and −4.8 MPa, respectively. The gs was also higher in winter (72.1–95.0 mmol m−2 s−1) than in summer (<30 mmol m−2 s−1), and negatively correlated with ψp (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.71–0.75), indicating strong stomatal control of transpiration in response to moisture stress. Total annual transpiration (147.2 mm) accounted for only 22% of the annual rainfall (673 mm), compared with 77% to 99% for woody vegetation in Western Australia. The low annual transpiration was attributed to the collective effects of a sparse and young vegetation, low moisture retention of the sandy substrate, and a superficial root system constrained by high subsoil pH. Amending the substrate with fine-textured materials should improve water storage of the substrate and enhance canopy growth and deep rooting, while further reducing the risk of deep drainage during the early stages of vegetation establishment and in the long term. Overall, this study highlights the need to understand substrate properties, vegetation characteristics, and rainfall patterns when designing Artificial Ecosystems to achieve specific hydrological functions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Transpiration and plant water relations of evergreen woody vegetation on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem under seasonally dry conditions in Western Australia
    Hydrological Processes, 2012
    Co-Authors: Willis Gwenzi, Erik J. Veneklaas, Timothy M. Bleby, Isa A. M. Yunusa, Christoph Hinz

    Abstract:

    Understanding transpiration and plant physiological responses to environmental conditions is crucial for the design and management of vegetated engineered covers. Engineered covers rely on sustained transpiration to reduce the risk of deep drainage into potentially hazardous wastes, thereby minimizing contamination of water resources. This study quantified temporal trends of plant water potential (ψp), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration in a 4-year-old evergreen woody vegetation growing on an Artificial sandy substrate at a mine waste disposal facility. Transpiration averaged 0.7 mm day−1 in winter, when rainfall was frequent, but declined to 0.2 mm day−1 in the dry summer, when the plants were quite stressed. In winter, the mean ψp was −0.6 MPa at predawn and −1.5 MPa at midday, which were much higher than the corresponding summer values of −2.0 MPa and −4.8 MPa, respectively. The gs was also higher in winter (72.1–95.0 mmol m−2 s−1) than in summer (

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  • field scale spatial variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem
    Geoderma, 2011
    Co-Authors: Willis Gwenzi, Christoph Hinz, Karen W Holmes, I R Phillips, Ian J Mullins

    Abstract:

    Abstract Saturated hydraulic conductivity ( K s ) influences water storage and movement, and is a key parameter of water and solute transport models. Systematic field evaluation of K s and its spatial variability for recently constructed Artificial Ecosystems is still lacking. The objectives of the present study were; (1) to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity of an Artificial Ecosystem using field methods (Philip–Dunne, and Guelph permeameters), and compare their results to the constant-head laboratory method; (2) to evaluate the spatial variability of K s using univariate and geostatistical analyses, and (3) to evaluate the ability of five pedotransfer functions to predict K s . The results showed that K s varied significantly (p  K s values were very high for all methods (38.6–77.9 m day − 1 ), exceeding values for natural sandy soils by several orders of magnitude. The high K s values and low coefficients of variation (26–44%) were comparable to that of well-sorted unconsolidated marine sands. Geostatistical analysis revealed a spatial structure in surface K s data described by a spherical model with a correlation range of 8 m. The resulting kriged map of surface K s showed alternating bands of high and low values, consistent with surface structures created by wheel tracks of construction equipment. Vertical K s was also spatially structured, with a short correlation range of 40 cm, presumably indicative of layering caused by post-construction mobilization and deposition of fine particles. K s was linearly and negatively correlated with dry soil bulk density (ρ b ) (r 2  = 0.73), and to a lesser extent silt plus clay percentage ( Si  +  C ) (r 2  = 0.21). Combining both ρ b and Si  +  C significantly (p  K s (r 2  = 0.76). However, evaluation of five PTFs developed for natural soils showed that they all underestimated K s by an order of magnitude, suggesting that application of water balance simulation models based on such PTFs to the present study site may constitute a bias in model outputs. Overall, the study demonstrated the influence of material handling, construction procedures and post-construction processes on the magnitude and spatial variability of K s on a recently constructed Artificial Ecosystem. These unique hydraulic properties may have profound impacts on soil moisture storage, plant water relations and water balance fluxes on Artificial Ecosystems, particularly where such landforms are intended to restore pre-disturbance ecological and hydrological functions.

    Free Register to Access Article