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Betrayal Trauma

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Jennifer J Freyd – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Psychological Outcomes of Within-Group Sexual Violence: Evidence of Cultural Betrayal
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 2018
    Co-Authors: Jennifer M. Gómez, Jennifer J Freyd

    Abstract:

    Cultural Betrayal Trauma theory is a new framework for understanding Trauma-related mental health outcomes in immigrant and minority populations. The purpose of the current study is to empirically test cultural Betrayal Trauma theory. We hypothesized that the association between within-group sexual violence and mental health outcomes would be stronger for minorities. Participants ( N  = 368) were minority and majority college students, who completed online measures of sexual violence victimization and mental health outcomes. A MANOVA revealed that the link between within-group sexual violence and total Trauma symptoms, depression, sexual abuse sequelae, sleep disturbance, and sexual problems was stronger for minorities. This study provides evidence for cultural Betrayal Trauma theory, as the findings suggest that outcomes from the same experience—within-group sexual violence—is affected by minority status. This work has implications for how mental health is understood, investigated, and treated in immigrant and minority populations.

  • the relationship of acculturation to historical loss awareness institutional Betrayal and the intergenerational transmission of Trauma in the american indian experience
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Lisa Demarni Cromer, Mary E Gray, Ludivina Vasquez, Jennifer J Freyd

    Abstract:

    The terms historical Trauma and intergenerational transmission of Trauma have been used interchangeably in the literature, yet may be theoretically distinct. The confusion in nomenclature may mask different underlying mechanisms for understanding Trauma. The current study applies institutional Betrayal Trauma theory as a means for understanding awareness of historical losses and examines the intergenerational transmission of Trauma through family systems. In a diverse sample (N = 59) of American Indians, we find support for the idea that institutional Betrayal may be at the heart of historical loss awareness. The more participants in the current study were acculturated, or identified with White culture, the less they were aware of historical losses. For the entire sample, regardless of acculturation, we found that family history of boarding school experiences, having parents and grandparents who lived in boarding schools, predicted interpersonal childhood Trauma but not noninterpersonal childhood Trauma.

  • Overwhelmed by emotion: pathways from revictimization to mothers’ negative emotional responsivity
    Family Process, 2017
    Co-Authors: Christina Gamache Martin, Jennifer J Freyd

    Abstract:

    Maternal history of childhood abuse has consistently been linked to increased risk for poor emotional adjustment and parenting as an adult. The aim of this study was to examine a model that may explain the link between maternal history of childhood abuse and mothers’ tendencies to respond negatively to their adolescent children’s negative emotions. A community sample of 66 mothers with adolescent children participated. Path analysis supported associations between mothers with a history of high Betrayal Trauma revictimization (i.e., Trauma perpetrated by someone close to the mother during childhood and again as a young adult) and increased difficulty regulating their emotions. In turn, mothers who struggled to regulate their own emotions were also more likely to respond negatively to their adolescent’s negative emotions. Findings highlight effects of childhood Trauma may be particularly problematic for mothers who are revictimized as young adults. These results provide the foundation for future research evaluating clinical interventions targeted at increasing maternal emotion regulation skills.

Anne P Deprince – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • victim perpetrator dynamics through the lens of Betrayal Trauma theory
    Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 2017
    Co-Authors: Kerry L Gagnon, Anne P Deprince

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTInterpersonal Trauma exposure is linked with a host of seemingly disparate outcomes for victims, such as psychological distress, post-Trauma appraisals (e.g., alienation, shame), poor cognitive functioning, expectations of harm in relationships, and revictimization risk. The presence of interpersonal Trauma alone may not fully explain this range of outcomes. The current paper applies Betrayal Trauma Theory (BTT), which was originally articulated two decades ago as a framework for understanding memory disruptions following interpersonal Trauma, as a framework to understand the diverse outcomes that can occur when interpersonal Trauma is perpetrated by a close other. Implications for clinical work and future research are considered.

  • Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma-Related Distress: Maternal Betrayal Trauma, Parenting Attitudes, and Behaviors
    Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rebecca L. Babcock Fenerci, Anne P Deprince

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to elucidate mechanisms involved in the intergenerational transmission of Trauma-related distress. This study investigated whether Betrayal Trauma (BT; abuse by a person close to the victim) and specific parenting attitudes and behaviors among mothers with child abuse histories predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms in their children. Mothers and children (ages 7–11) were recruited for a project on parenting and stress (N = 72). Maternal Betrayal Trauma predicted both internalizing (β = 0.33, p 

  • intergenerational transmission of Trauma related distress maternal Betrayal Trauma parenting attitudes and behaviors
    Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma, 2016
    Co-Authors: Rebecca L. Babcock Fenerci, Anne P Deprince

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to elucidate mechanisms involved in the intergenerational transmission of Trauma-related distress. This study investigated whether Betrayal Trauma (BT; abuse by a person close to the victim) and specific parenting attitudes and behaviors among mothers with child abuse histories predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms in their children. Mothers and children (ages 7–11) were recruited for a project on parenting and stress (N = 72). Maternal Betrayal Trauma predicted both internalizing (β = 0.33, p < .01) and externalizing symptoms (β = 0.25, p < .05) even when controlling for mothers’ Trauma-related symptoms. Negative attitudes toward limit setting predicted externalizing symptoms (β = −0.33, p < .05). Poorer communication (β = −0.39, p < .05) but higher parenting satisfaction (β = 0.38, p < .01) predicted internalizing symptoms. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing maternal Trauma and parenting characteristics as part of interventions with …

Laura A Kaehler – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • are hallucinations related to Betrayal Trauma exposure a three study exploration
    Psychological Trauma: Theory Research Practice and Policy, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jennifer M. Gómez, Laura A Kaehler, Jennifer J Freyd

    Abstract:

    Betraya lt rauma theor yp ropose st hat on er esponse t ob etraya lm a yb e t ok ee pk nowledge of the Trauma out o fc onscious awareness. Although this Betrayal blindness ma yb e beneficial for survival while the abuse is ongoing because it help sm aintain crucial relationships, this distortion o fr eality can lead to subsequent psychological and behavioral problems. Th ec urrent article presents three exploratory studies that examine th ea ssociations among exposure t ob etraya lt rauma ,d issociation, and hallucinations. The first study (N 397 )e xamined th ea ssociations between exposure to medium and high betraya lt rauma and dissociation. The second study (N 199 )e xamined th ea ssociations between exposure to low, medium, and high betraya lt raum aa nd hallucinations. The third study (N 566 )e xamined the associations between medium and high Betrayal child and adolescent/adult sexual abus ea nd hallucinations. Ou rr esults suggest that exposure t ob etraya lt rauma increase st he likelihood of bot hd issociation and hallucinations. Thes ef indings provid ef urther evidence tha tt he toxic nature of betraya li n Traumas ha sl asting effects on both cognitiv ea nd perceptual processes—dissociation and hallucinations—having implications for therapeutic treatment for individuals who hav ee xperience db etraya lt raumas and related outcomes.

  • Betrayal Trauma and borderline personality characteristics gender differences
    Psychological Trauma: Theory Research Practice and Policy, 2012
    Co-Authors: Laura A Kaehler, Jennifer J Freyd

    Abstract:

    Borderline Personality Disorder has been linked to both Trauma and insecure attachment styles. Betrayal Trauma Theory proposes those who have experienced interpersonal Trauma may remain unaware of Betrayal in order to maintain a necessary attachment. This study attempts to replicate the association between self-reported Betrayal Trauma experiences and borderline personality characteristics found by Kaehler and Freyd (2009); however, this project includes participants from a community, rather than a college, sample. Using multiple regression, all three levels of Betrayal (high, medium, and low) and gender were significant predictors of borderline personality characteristics. Separate regression analyses were conducted for both genders to explore the associations of Betrayal Trauma on these traits. For men, all three levels of Betrayal Trauma were significant predictors; for women, only high and medium Betrayal Traumas were significant. These findings suggest Trauma may be a key factor of borderline personality disorder, with differential effects for Betrayal and gender.

  • relational health as a mediator between Betrayal Trauma and borderline personality disorder
    Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 2012
    Co-Authors: Brent Belford, Laura A Kaehler, Pamela J Birrell

    Abstract:

    A frequently studied hypothesized cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is experiencing interpersonal Trauma. A recent study by L. A. Kaehler and J. J. Freyd (2009) found a connection between Betrayal Trauma and BPD characteristics, with higher Betrayal Traumas associated with greater BPD characteristics. The present study seeks to expand upon that study by investigating relational health as a potential mediator for the association between Betrayal Trauma and BPD. A sample of 165 college students completed measures of Betrayal Trauma life events, relational health, and BPD traits. Mediation analyses showed significant partial mediation for total relational health (bootstrap coefficient = .0168) and its community subscale (bootstrap coefficient = .0204); however, significant mediating effects for the mentor and friend subscales were not found. Given the significant finding for only the community subscale, which may be driving the total relational health effect seen, the results suggest that connec…