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Ellen Bialystok - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
the language and social background questionnaire assessing degree of Bilingualism in a diverse populationBehavior Research Methods, 2018Co-Authors: John A E Anderson, Lorinda Mak, Aram Keyvani Chahi, Ellen BialystokAbstract:
Research examining the cognitive consequences of Bilingualism has expanded rapidly in recent years and has revealed effects on aspects of cognition across the lifespan. However, these effects are difficult to find in studies investigating young adults. One problem is that there is no standard definition of Bilingualism or means of evaluating degree of Bilingualism in individual participants, making it difficult to directly compare the results of different studies. Here, we describe an instrument developed to assess degree of Bilingualism for young adults who live in diverse communities in which English is the official language. We demonstrate the reliability and validity of the instrument in analyses based on 408 participants. The relevant factors for describing degree of Bilingualism are: (1) the extent of non-English language proficiency and use at home, and (2) non-English language use socially. We then use the Bilingualism scores obtained from the instrument to demonstrate their association with: (1) performance on executive function tasks, and (2) previous classifications of participants into categories of monolinguals and bilinguals.
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2018Co-Authors: Danielle Thomassunesson, Kenji Hakuta, Ellen BialystokAbstract:
Past studies examining the cognitive function of bilingual school-aged children have pointed to enhancements in areas of executive control relative to age-matched monolingual children. The majority of these studies has tested children from a middle-class background and compared performance of bilinguals as a discrete group against monolinguals. The objective of the present study was to determine if cognitive enhancement from Bilingualism is sensitive to the child's degree of Bilingualism in a sample of eight- and nine-year old Spanish–English bilingual children of low socioeconomic status. The results showed that the more balanced the children were in their language skills, the better they performed on non-verbal tasks of cognitive function. These results support an additive view of Bilingualism, where more balanced proficiency in two languages is associated with more enhanced cognitive function, regardless of socioeconomic background.
Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2016Co-Authors: Ellen BialystokAbstract:
Studies on the effect of Bilingualism on executive functioning have sometimes failed to find significant differences between performance of monolingual and bilingual young adults. This paper examines the interpretation of these null findings and considers the role of three factors: definition of Bilingualism, appropriateness of statistical procedures and interpretations, and the range of data considered. The conclusion is that a correct interpretation of this important issue will require careful consideration of all the data and scrupulous attention to design details.
Brain Research, 2015Co-Authors: Rosanna K Olsen, Gigi Luk, Melissa M Pangelinan, Cari A Bogulski, Mallar M Chakravarty, Cheryl L Grady, Ellen BialystokAbstract:
Lifelong Bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of Bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that Bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in Bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to Bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age. The current study investigated structural differences in the brain of lifelong bilingual older adults (n=14, mean age=70.4) compared with older monolinguals (n=14, mean age=70.6). We employed two analytic approaches: 1) we examined global differences in grey and white matter volumes; and, 2) we examined local differences in volume and cortical thickness of specific regions of interest previously implicated in bilingual/monolingual comparisons (temporal pole) or in aging (entorhinal cortex and hippocampus). We expected bilinguals would exhibit greater volume of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe (grey and white matter), given the importance of these regions in executive and language functions, respectively. We further hypothesized that regions in the medial temporal lobe, which demonstrate early changes in aging and exhibit neural pathology in dementia, would be more preserved in the bilingual group. As predicted, bilinguals exhibit greater frontal lobe white matter compared with monolinguals. Moreover, increasing age was related to decreasing temporal pole cortical thickness in the monolingual group, but no such relationship was observed for bilinguals. Finally, Stroop task performance was positively correlated with frontal lobe white matter, emphasizing the importance of preserved white matter in maintaining executive function in aging. These results underscore previous findings implicating an association between Bilingualism and preserved frontal and temporal lobe function in aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory A.
Child Development Perspectives, 2015Co-Authors: Ellen BialystokAbstract:
In this article, I review research examining the effect of Bilingualism on children's cognitive development and in particular, executive function. I describe studies reporting bilingual advantages in various tasks to identify the process or component of executive function that might be responsible for this bilingual advantage, discussing sev- eral possibilities, including inhibitory control. Finally, I propose attention is a fundamental process that initiates developmental differences in bilingual children from as early as infancy. KEYWORDS—Bilingualism; cognitive development; executive function; attention; infancy
Judith F Kroll - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Social Science Research Network, 2015Co-Authors: Judith F Kroll, Paola E Dussias, Kinsey Bice, Lauren PerrottiAbstract:
The use of two or more languages is common in most of the world. Yet, until recently, Bilingualism was considered to be a complicating factor for language processing, cognition, and the brain. The past 20 years have witnessed an upsurge of research on Bilingualism to examine language acquisition and processing, their cognitive and neural bases, and the consequences that Bilingualism holds for cognition and the brain over the life span. Contrary to the view that Bilingualism complicates the language system, this new research demonstrates that all of the languages that are known and used become part of the same language system. The interactions that arise when two languages are in play have consequences for the mind and the brain and, indeed, for language processing itself, but those consequences are not additive. Thus, Bilingualism helps reveal the fundamental architecture and mechanisms of language processing that are otherwise hidden in monolingual speakers.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2014Co-Authors: Judith F Kroll, Susan C Bobb, Noriko HoshinoAbstract:
A series of discoveries in the past two decades has changed the way we think about Bilingualism and its implications for language and cognition. One is that both of the bilingual’s languages are always active. The parallel activation of the two languages is thought to give rise to competition that imposes demands on the bilingual to control the language not in use to achieve fluency in the target language. The second is that there are consequences of Bilingualism that affect the native as well as the second language: The native language changes in response to second-language use. The third is that the consequences of Bilingualism are not limited to language but appear to reflect a reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally. The focus of recent research on Bilingualism has been to understand the relations among these discoveries and their implications for language, cognition, and the brain across the life span.
Oxford University Press, 2005Co-Authors: Judith F Kroll, Annette M B De GrootAbstract:
PART 1: ACQUISITION 1. The learning of foreign language vocabulary Syntax 2. Early bilingual acquisition: Focus on morphosyntax and the separate development hypothesis 3. A unified model of language development 4. Phonology and Bilingualism Biological bases 5. What does the critical period really mean? 6. Interpreting age effects in second language acquisition 7. Processing constraints on L1 transfer 8. Models of monolingual and bilingual language acquisiton PART 2: COMPREHENSION 9. Bilingual visual word recognition and lexical access 10. Computational models of bilingual comprehension 11. The representation of cognate and noncognate words in bilingual memory: Can cognate status be characterized as a special kind of morphological relation? 12. Bilingual semantic and conceptual representation 13. Ambiguities and anomalies: What can eye-movements and event-related potentials reveal about second language sentence processing PART 3: PRODUCTION AND CONTROL 14. Selection processes in monolingual and bilingual lexical access 15. Lexical access in bilingual production 16. Supporting a differential access hypothesis: Codeswitching and other contact data 17. Language selection in bilinguals: Mechanisms and processes 18. Automatically in Bilingualism and second language learning 19. Being and becoming bilingual: Individual differences and consequences for language production PART 4: ASPECTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF Bilingualism Cognitive consequences 20. Consequences of Bilingualism for cognitive development 21. Bilingualism and thought 22. Simultaneous interpreting: A cognitive perspective Cognitive neuroscience approaches 23. Clearing the cobwebs from the study of the bilingual brain: Converging evidence from laterality and electrophysiological research 24. What can functional neuroimaging tell us about the bilingual brain? 25. The neurocognition of recovery patterns in bilingual aphasics 26. Models of bilingual representation and processing: Looking back and to the future
Language, 1999Co-Authors: Annette M B De Groot, Judith F KrollAbstract:
Contents: Preface. A.M.B. de Groot, J.F. Kroll, Introduction and Overview. Part I: Second Language Acquisition. B. Harley, W. Wang, The Critical Period Hypothesis: Where Are We Now? N.C. Ellis, N. Laporte, Contexts of Acquisition: Effects of Formal Instruction and Naturalistic Exposure on Second Language Acquisition. N. Segalowitz, Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. B. MacWhinney, Second Language Acquisition and the Competition Model. Part II: Representation, Comprehension, and Production in Two Languages. M. Chapnik Smith, How Do Bilinguals Access Lexical Information? J.F. Kroll, A.M.B. de Groot, Lexical and Conceptual Memory in the Bilingual: Mapping Form to Meaning in Two Languages. N. Poulisse, Language Production in Bilinguals. F. Grosjean, Processing Mixed Language: Issues, Findings, and Models. A.Y. Durgunog(u)lu, Bilingual Reading: Its Components, Development, and Other Issues. Part III: The Consequences of Bilingualism for Thought and for Special Forms of Language Processing. V. Cook, The Consequences of Bilingualism for Cognitive Processing. R. Dufour, Sign Language and Bilingualism: Modality Implications for Bilingual Language Representation. M. Paradis, The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Bilingualism.
Fergus I M Craik - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
cognitive reserve in parkinson s disease the effects of welsh english Bilingualism on executive functionParkinson's Disease, 2015Co-Authors: Ellen Bialystok, Fergus I M Craik, John V Hindle, Pamela A Martinforbes, Alexandra J M Bastable, Kirstie L Pye, Anthony Martyr, Christopher J Whitaker, Enlli Mon ThomasAbstract:
Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of Bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of Bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of Bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of Bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2012Co-Authors: Ellen Bialystok, Fergus I M Craik, Gigi LukAbstract:
Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of Bilingualism on children’s cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of Bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that Bilingualism has a somewhat muted effect in adulthood but a larger role in older age, protecting against cognitive decline, a concept known as ‘cognitive reserve’. We discuss recent evidence that Bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of symptoms of dementia. Cognitive reserve is a crucial research area in the context of an aging population; the possibility that Bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve is therefore of growing importance as populations become increasingly diverse. Why Bilingualism? It is generally believed that more than half of the world’s population is bilingual . In each of the U.S.A. 1 and Canada 2 , approximately 20% of the population speaks a language at home other than English. These figures are higher in urban areas, rising to about 60% in Los Angeles 3 and 50% in Toronto 4 . In Europe, Bilingualism is even more prevalent: in a recent survey, 56% of the population across all European Union countries reported being functionally bilingual, with some countries recording particularly high rates, such as Luxembourg at 99% 5 . Bilinguals, therefore, make up
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2010Co-Authors: Ellen Bialystok, Fergus I M CraikAbstract:
The article reports research investigating the way Bilingualism affects cognitive and linguistic performance across the life span. In general, Bilingualism appears to have both benefits and costs. Regarding costs, bilinguals typically have lower formal language proficiency than monolinguals do; for example, they have smaller vocabularies and weaker access to lexical items. The benefits, however, are that bilinguals exhibit enhanced executive control in nonverbal tasks requiring conflict resolution, such as the Stroop and Simon tasks. These patterns and their consequences are illustrated and discussed. We also propose some suggestions regarding underlying mechanisms for these effects.
Psychology and Aging, 2004Co-Authors: Ellen Bialystok, Fergus I M Craik, Raymond M Klein, Mythili ViswanathanAbstract:
Previous work has shown that Bilingualism is associated with more effective controlled processing in children; the assumption is that the constant management of 2 competing languages enhances executive functions (E. Bialystok, 2001). The present research attempted to determine whether this bilingual advantage persists for adults and whether Bilingualism attenuates the negative effects of aging on cognitive control in older adults. Three studies are reported that compared the performance of monolingual and bilingual middle-aged and older adults on the Simon task. Bilingualism was associated with smaller Simon effect costs for both age groups; bilingual participants also responded more rapidly to conditions that placed greater demands on working memory. In all cases the bilingual advantage was greater for older participants. It appears, therefore, that controlled processing is carried out more effectively by bilinguals and that Bilingualism helps to offset age-related losses in certain executive processes.
Evelyn Bosma - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
the minimal and short lived effects of minority language exposure on the executive functions of frisian dutch bilingual childrenFrontiers in Psychology, 2017Co-Authors: Evelyn Bosma, Eric Hoekstra, A P Versloot, Elma BlomAbstract:
Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of Bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of Bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of Bilingualism are moderated by degree of Bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children's cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of Bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of Bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.
Anatoliy V. Kharkhurin - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
the role of Bilingualism in creative performance on divergent thinking and invented alien creatures testsJournal of Creative Behavior, 2009Co-Authors: Anatoliy V. KharkhurinAbstract:
This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of Bilingualism on an individual’s creative potential. The performances of FarsiEnglish bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults) and structured imagination test (Invented Alien Creatures task). The findings of the divergent thinking test revealed that Bilingualism facilitates the innovative capacity, the ability to extract novel and unique ideas, but not the generative capacity, the ability to generate and process a large number of unrelated ideas. The findings of the test of structured imagination demonstrated that Bilingualism strengthens an ability to violate a standard set of category properties. In addition, the study hints at the construct validity of these two tests of creative functioning. However, the study acknowledges its rather exploratory character as the bilingual and monolingual groups might differ in a number of uncontrolled sociocultural factors that could potentially mediate the effect of Bilingualism.
on the possible relationships between Bilingualism biculturalism and creativity a cognitive perspective2005Co-Authors: Anatoliy V. KharkhurinAbstract:
This project explores the hypothesis that Bilingualism encourages divergent thinking and cognitive flexibility, which together facilitate creative thought. Whereas most of the explorations of this issue have directly compared monolinguals with bilinguals, in this study we also used a within-bilingual design in which each bilingual individual was assessed in terms of proficiency in each language and cross-cultural experience. The purpose was to incorporate the various procedures that have been traditionally used to assess Bilingualism in bilingual research along with the socio-cultural aspects of Bilingualism, which have typically been neglected. The working hypothesis was that, in addition to the virtue of speaking two languages, bilinguals who experience and participate in two cultures may benefit from the metaand paralinguistic advantages of biculturalism leading to an increase in divergent thinking abilities. INTRODUCTION