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M A Drake – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
short communication the influence of solids concentration and Bleaching Agent on Bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powderJournal of Dairy Science, 2015Co-Authors: M G Jervis, T J Smith, M A DrakeAbstract:
Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of Bleaching conditions and Bleaching Agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at Bleaching significantly affected Bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different Bleaching Agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and Bleaching Agent on the flavor and Bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before Bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no Bleaching, 50°C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50°C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50°C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50°C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy Bleaching units/mL, 50°C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in Bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different Bleaching Agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected Bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other Bleaching Agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that solids concentration at Bleaching and Bleaching Agent affect quality of SWP.
the influence of Bleaching Agent and temperature on Bleaching efficacy and volatile components of fluid whey and whey retentateJournal of Food Science, 2013Co-Authors: T J Smith, Patrick D Gerard, M A DrakeAbstract:
Fluid whey or retentate are often bleached to remove residual annatto Cheddar cheese colorant, and this process causes off-flavors in dried whey proteins. This study determined the impact of temperature and Bleaching Agent on Bleaching efficacy and volatile components in fluid whey and fluid whey retentate. Freshly manufactured liquid whey (6.7% solids) or concentrated whey protein (retentate) (12% solids, 80% protein) were bleached using benzoyl peroxide (BP) at 100 mg/kg (w/w) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) at 250 mg/kg (w/w) at 5 °C for 16 h or 50 °CC for 1 h. Unbleached controls were subjected to a similar temperature profile. The experiment was replicated three times. Annatto destruction (Bleaching efficacy) among treatments was compared, and volatile compounds were extracted and separated using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Bleaching efficacy of BP was higher than HP (P 0.05). Retentate bleached with HP at either temperature had higher relative abundances of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal than BP bleached retentate (P < 0.05). Liquid wheys generally had lower concentrations of selected volatiles compared to retentates. These results suggest that the highest Bleaching efficacy (within the parameters evaluated) in liquid whey is achieved using BP at 5 or 50 °C and at 50 °C with HP or BP in whey protein retentate.
Benzoyl peroxide and hydrogen peroxide are the two chemical Bleaching Agents approved for Bleaching whey in the United States. Previous studies have shown less norbixin destruction and increased off-flavor production using HP compared to BP in liquid whey. No published studies have compared Bleaching parameters of liquid whey and whey retentate. BP is an effective Bleaching Agent in fluid whey or retentate at 5 or 50 °C. In contrast, optimal Bleaching with HP occurs in whey protein retentate (12% solids, 80% protein). Decreased production of lipid oxidation volatiles occurred at 5 °C compared to 50 °C with HP Bleaching and suggests that HP Bleaching in whey protein retentate should occur at colder temperatures (5 °C).
effect of temperature and Bleaching Agent on Bleaching of liquid cheddar wheyJournal of Dairy Science, 2012Co-Authors: M A D Listiyani, R E Campbell, R E Miracle, D M Barbano, Patrick D Gerard, M A DrakeAbstract:
Abstract The use of whey protein as an ingredient in foods and beverages is increasing, and thus demand for colorless and mild-tasting whey protein is rising. Bleaching is commonly applied to fluid colored cheese whey to decrease color, and different temperatures and bleach concentrations are used. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of hot and cold Bleaching, the point of Bleaching (before or after fat separation), and Bleaching Agent on Bleaching efficacy and volatile components of liquid colored and uncolored Cheddar whey. First, Cheddar whey was manufactured, pasteurized, fat-separated, and subjected to one of a number of hot (68°C) or cold (4°C) Bleaching applications [hydrogen peroxide (HP) 50 to 500mg/kg; benzoyl peroxide (BP) 25 to 100mg/kg] followed by measurement of residual norbixin and color by reflectance. Bleaching Agent concentrations were then selected for the second trial. Liquid colored Cheddar whey was manufactured in triplicate and pasteurized. Part of the whey was collected (no separation, NSE) and the rest was subjected to fat separation (FSE). The NSE and FSE wheys were then subdivided and Bleaching treatments (BP 50 or 100mg/kg and HP 250 or 500mg/kg) at 68°C for 30min or 4°C for 16h were applied. Control NSE and FSE with no added bleach were also subjected to each time–temperature combination. Volatile compounds from wheys were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and norbixin (annatto) was extracted and quantified to compare Bleaching efficacy. Proximate analysis, including total solids, protein, and fat contents, was also conducted. Liquid whey subjected to hot Bleaching at both concentrations of HP or at 100mg/kg BP had greater lipid oxidation products (aldehydes) compared with unbleached wheys, 50mg/kg BP hot-bleached whey, or cold-bleached wheys. No effect was detected between NSE and FSE liquid Cheddar whey on the relative abundance of volatile lipid oxidation products. Wheys bleached with BP had lower norbixin content compared with wheys bleached with HP. Bleaching efficacy of HP was decreased at 4°C compared with 68°C, whereas that of BP was not affected by temperature. These results suggest that fat separation of liquid Cheddar whey has no effect on Bleaching efficacy or lipid oxidation and that hot Bleaching may result in increased lipid oxidation in fluid whey.
Luiz Andre Freire Pimenta – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
microhardness evaluation of in situ vital Bleaching on human dental enamel using a novel study designDental Materials, 2005Co-Authors: José Augusto Rodrigues, Luiz Andre Freire Pimenta, Giselle Maria Marchi, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Harald O HeymannAbstract:
Summary Objectives The aim of this ‘in situ’ study was to evaluate the microhardness of dental enamel following treatment with an in-office and an at-home vital Bleaching Agent through a novel approach using samples temporarily bonded ‘in vivo’. Methods Human dental enamel slabs ( n =88) were subjected to sequential polishing and initial Knoop microhardness tests were performed. The slabs were fixed to the facial surfaces of the maxillary first molars of 44 human volunteers. They were divided into four groups ( n =11) according to the treatment group: G1- in-office-CP37+ at-home-CP10; G2- in-office-CP37+ at-home-PLA; G3- in-office-PLA and at-home-CP10; G4- in-office and at-home-PLA. After 3 weeks of treatment, final microhardness measurements were performed. Results and Significance ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD hoc analysis ( α =0.05) revealed no differences among initial or final microhardness values ( p >0.05); however, significant differences occurred between initial and final values for each group ( p
Purificación Varela-patiño – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Colorimeter and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Teeth Submitted to Internal BleachingJournal of Endodontics, 2010Co-Authors: Benjamín Martín-biedma, Teresa Gonzalez-gonzalez, Manuela Lopes, Luís Lopes, Ruth Vilar, José Bahillo, Purificación Varela-patiñoAbstract:
Introduction: This in vitro study compared the tooth color and the ultrastructure of internal dental tissues before and after internal Bleaching. Methods: Sodium perborate was placed in the pulp chamber of endodontically treated molars and sealed with intermediate restorative material. The test samples were stored in a physiologic solution, and the Bleaching Agent was replaced every 7 days. A control group was used. After 1 month, the colors of the test and control samples were measured with a colorimeter, and the internal surfaces were observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the test and control sample colors. The FESEM ultrastructure analysis of the internal enamel and dentin surfaces did not show any changes after the internal Bleaching. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that sodium perborate is effective in Bleaching nonvital teeth and does not produce ultrastructural changes in the dental tissues. © 2010 American Association of Endodontists.