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Ailuropoda melanoleuca

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Zejun Zhang – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • disturbance control can effectively restore the habitat of the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca
    Biological Conservation, 2019
    Co-Authors: Hong Zhou, Zejun Zhang, Xiaodong Gu, Xuyu Yang, Mingsheng Hong, Wen Zhang

    Abstract:

    Abstract Expanding human disturbances on a global scale are encroaching upon wildlife habitat. Management of human–wildlife conflict is an important issue in biodiversity conservation. Conservation decisions are supported by information on how many habitats could be recovered by controlling human disturbances, yet it has rarely been quantitatively studied. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are still confronted with threats of human disturbance even though populations have been restored in recent decades. In this study, the impact of four types of human disturbance, including livestock, infrastructure, farming and other disturbances were assessed based on a dataset that covers 75% of total giant panda population. Five scenarios where disturbances are controlled were used to evaluate the habitat area that can be restored by controlling disturbance. Results revealed that 2102 km2 of suitable habitat can be restored if all these disturbances were completely controlled. Controlling livestock alone can restore up to 830 km2 of habitat, much more than controlling farming or infrastructure. Controlling infrastructure restored more habitat than the other disturbances in the Daxiangling and Qionglai Mountains. Moreover, in the Minshan Mountains, controlling agriculture resulted in the most habitat restoration. It appears, the reserves system does work in controlling the three types of human disturbance, however, more control is needed over human disturbances in order to restore wildlife habitat outside of the reserves. These results not only calculate how much giant panda habitat can be restored by controlling disturbance, but also provide insights for other species habitat management.

  • habitat utilization and release site fidelity of translocated captive bred giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca
    Folia Zoologica, 2019
    Co-Authors: Biao Yang, Zejun Zhang, Ke He, Jing Qing, Kan Zhang, Bo Tang, Zhisong Yang, Xiaodong Gu, Xuyu Yang, Yan Huang

    Abstract:

    The behavioural adaptation (movement and habitat utilization) of translocated organisms to a new environment after their release is crucial in translocation programs because it may affect survival. Therefore, identifying the factors determining habitat selection by the relocated animals is essential to improving the planning and the outcome of such programs. Using the data from three relocated giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we studied the habitat utilization, release-site fidelity, and interaction with resident giant pandas. The results showed that the quality of habitat used by the relocated giant pandas was significantly higher than the average habitat quality of the research region, and was significantly lower than that used by resident giant pandas. This suggested that the released three giant pandas had habitat selection abilities. The three released giant pandas gradually moved away from their release sites and did not exhibit site fidelity. In the first six months, the giant pandas stayed within about 3 km of their release sites, where habitat was good quality but overlapped with the distribution of resident giant pandas. The overlap of location between released and resident giant pandas decreased after six months when the released giant pandas moved away from their release sites.

  • reproductive competition and fecal testosterone in wild male giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Ronald R Swaisgood, Zejun Zhang

    Abstract:

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is notoriously difficult to study in the wild, but its interesting reproductive ecology makes the effort worthwhile. Perhaps more than most species, the panda is energy-limited, which alters the cost/benefit analysis of its reproductive ecology. Using global positioning system/very high frequency radiocollars to locate mating aggregations, we used behavioral observations and fecal testosterone assays to gain insight into male panda reproductive effort and strategies, and test theories relating to reproductive competition. Male pandas initially competed fiercely for access to females that were about to be fertile, but once male competitive status was determined, aggression rates declined. Contact aggression was only observed during the first 2 days of mating aggregations; thereafter, it was replaced with noncontact aggression and avoidance. Agonistic interactions were highly asymmetrical, with contest losers (subordinates) showing less aggression and more avoidance than contest winners (dominants), both before and after contest outcome was established. The competitively superior male displayed mate-guarding tactics and secured all observed copulations. Contrary to theoretical predictions, testosterone levels did not predict aggression levels or contest winners and also were not affected by winning or losing a contest. Body size appeared to be the primary determinant of contest outcome. We discuss our findings in light of theoretical predictions, such as those arising from the “challenge hypothesis,” in the context of the giant panda’s foraging and nutritional ecology.

Hemin Zhang – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Status and prognosis of genetic diversity in captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Wolong
    , 2020
    Co-Authors: Yan Huang, Hemin Zhang, Pengyan Wang, Baowei Zhang, Shanning Zhang, Ming Li

    Abstract:

    The evolutionary potential of a species is determined by its genetic diversity.Thus,management plans should integrate genetic concerns into active conservation efforts.The giant panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)is an endangered species,endemic to China.Previous studies have focused primarily on genetic diversity among wild giant pandas.We compared genetic diversity of captive with wild giant pandas by obtaining 27 blood samples from pandas held at the China Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Pandas with 39 samples (feces and skin) collected from the wild. We quantified genetic diversity in each sample using 8 microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity of captive pandas was lower (A=5.5, He=0.620, Ho=0.574) than in wild pandas (A=9.8, He=0.779, Ho=0.581), but was higher than that of other 7 endangered species (He=0.13-0.46). Simulations showed that the average number of alleles would increase by only 0.4 within 100 generations with a doubling of population size. Thus, we suggest that the management strategy for the captive giant panda population should develop effective reproductive plans so as to avoid inbreeding.

  • NORMAL VAGINAL BACTERIAL FLORA OF GIANT PANDAS (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF THE ISOLATES.
    Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 2020
    Co-Authors: Xin Yang, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Pengyan Wang, Caiwu Li, Jiang Yang, Hongning Wang, Yongguo He, Yuesong Xu

    Abstract:

    To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method. Of the 152 isolates, resistance was most frequently observed with chloramphenicol (17.8%), followed by tetracycline (14.5%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%), streptomycin (11.8%), and florfenicol (11.8%), whereas 7.2% were multidrug resistant. This is the first report of the normal culturable vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates.

  • Sequence analysis of the ATP synthase of subunits (ATP8 and ATP6) genes of mitochondrial DNA genome from Ailuropoda melanoleuca
    Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 2018
    Co-Authors: Yaodong Hu, Hui-zhong Pang, Shan-shan Ling, Hemin Zhang, Diyan Li, Desheng Li, Chengdong Wang

    Abstract:

    AbstractTo explore the effects of the mutations of ATP6 and ATP8 genes on energy metabolism and genetic structure, we sequenced the ATP6 and ATP8 genes of Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Our results showed…

Ronald R Swaisgood – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • reproductive competition and fecal testosterone in wild male giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2012
    Co-Authors: Ronald R Swaisgood, Zejun Zhang

    Abstract:

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is notoriously difficult to study in the wild, but its interesting reproductive ecology makes the effort worthwhile. Perhaps more than most species, the panda is energy-limited, which alters the cost/benefit analysis of its reproductive ecology. Using global positioning system/very high frequency radiocollars to locate mating aggregations, we used behavioral observations and fecal testosterone assays to gain insight into male panda reproductive effort and strategies, and test theories relating to reproductive competition. Male pandas initially competed fiercely for access to females that were about to be fertile, but once male competitive status was determined, aggression rates declined. Contact aggression was only observed during the first 2 days of mating aggregations; thereafter, it was replaced with noncontact aggression and avoidance. Agonistic interactions were highly asymmetrical, with contest losers (subordinates) showing less aggression and more avoidance than contest winners (dominants), both before and after contest outcome was established. The competitively superior male displayed mate-guarding tactics and secured all observed copulations. Contrary to theoretical predictions, testosterone levels did not predict aggression levels or contest winners and also were not affected by winning or losing a contest. Body size appeared to be the primary determinant of contest outcome. We discuss our findings in light of theoretical predictions, such as those arising from the “challenge hypothesis,” in the context of the giant panda’s foraging and nutritional ecology.

  • Can science save the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)? Unifying science and policy in an adaptive management paradigm.
    Integrative Zoology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ronald R Swaisgood, William J Mcshea, David E Wildt, Andrew J Kouba, Zejun Zhang

    Abstract:

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca David, 1869) is an iconic species for global conservation, yet field research has only recently advanced to the point where adaptive management is possible. Here, we review recent developments in giant panda conservation science and propose a strategic plan for moving panda conservation forward. Because of scientific, funding, political, and logistical hurdles, few endangered species management programs have embraced adaptive management, wherein management decisions are shaped iteratively by targeted scientific research. Specific threats, such as habitat destruction, anthropogenic disturbance and fragmented nonviable populations, need to be addressed simultaneously by researchers, managers and policy-makers working in concert to understand and overcome these obstacles to species recovery. With the backing of the Chinese Government and the conservation community, the giant panda can become a high-profile test species for this much touted, but rarely implemented, approach to conservation management.

  • can science save the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca unifying science and policy in an adaptive management paradigm
    Integrative Zoology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Ronald R Swaisgood, Zejun Zhang, William J Mcshea, David E Wildt, Andrew J Kouba

    Abstract:

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca David, 1869) is an iconic species for global conservation, yet field research has only recently advanced to the point where adaptive management is possible. Here, we review recent developments in giant panda conservation science and propose a strategic plan for moving panda conservation forward. Because of scientific, funding, political, and logistical hurdles, few endangered species management programs have embraced adaptive management, wherein management decisions are shaped iteratively by targeted scientific research. Specific threats, such as habitat destruction, anthropogenic disturbance and fragmented nonviable populations, need to be addressed simultaneously by researchers, managers and policy-makers working in concert to understand and overcome these obstacles to species recovery. With the backing of the Chinese Government and the conservation community, the giant panda can become a high-profile test species for this much touted, but rarely implemented, approach to conservation management.