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Allelochemicals

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Chui-hua Kong – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Inducible effects of methyl jasmonate on Allelochemicals from rice
    Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2020
    Co-Authors: Chui-hua Kong, Fei Hu, Chaoxian Zhang, Xiaohua Xu

    Abstract:

    Methyl jasmonate is a signaling molecule that is mediated through air between plants. It plays important role in activating self-defensive system and induces secondary metabolites production in plants. One of the most important defensive systems in allelopathic rice varieties against associated weeds is to produce and release Allelochemicals. Therefore, inducible effects by methyl jasmonate on rice Allelochemicals production were investigated under both laboratory and field conditions. The results demonstrated that rice Allelochemicals (m-arabinose-pentadecanyl-resorcinol, m-arabinose- pentadecenyl-8-resorcinol, 7-xylose-luteolin, 3-glucose-hydroxmaic acid and 3-glucose -7-methoxy-hydroxamic acid) productions were elicited by exogenously applied methyl jasmonate in rice leaves. This inducible effect was dose-dependent and inducible period-dependent. The application of 0.4mmol/L methyl jasmonate effectively induced to synthesize significant amounts of Allelochemicals in allelopathic rice plants in the laboratory and field. The levels of Allelochemicals increased rapidly in methyl jasmonate-elicited rice leaves and reached maximum values in 48h after treatments. Furthermore, the inducible response to allelochemical production depended on different rice varieties. Allelopathic rice varieties, PI312777 and Fenghuazhan, could be induced to synthesize a large amount of Allelochemicals by methyl jasmonate at different concentrations. However, Allelochemicals amounts of non-allelopathic Huajingxian were slightly increased and could not reach the levels to express its allelopathic potential. In addtion, the inducible effects by methyl jasmonate on rice Allelochemicals also were time-dependent and could not be maintained for a long period. As a result, rice allelochemical production began 12h after treatment with methyl jasmonate and required 48h for obtaining a maximum accumulation, and then allelochemical amounts were gradually reduced. The results showed that the accumulation of rice Allelochemicals in response to exogenous methyl jasmonate was dynamic, and the allelochemical production in rice plant could be triggered by exogenously applied methyl jasmonate. This finding suggests that allelochemical elicitation by exogenously applied methyl jasmonate is worthwhile in future study for the understanding of allelopathic rice variety against associated weeds.

  • Allelochemicals and Signaling Chemicals in Plants
    Molecules, 2019
    Co-Authors: Chui-hua Kong, Tran Dang Xuan, Tran Dang Khanh, Hoang-dung Tran, Nguyen Thanh Trung

    Abstract:

    Plants abound with active ingredients. Among these natural constituents, Allelochemicals and signaling chemicals that are released into the environments play important roles in regulating the interactions between plants and other organisms. Allelochemicals participate in the defense of plants against microbial attack, herbivore predation, and/or competition with other plants, most notably in allelopathy, which affects the establishment of competing plants. Allelochemicals could be leads for new pesticide discovery efforts. Signaling chemicals are involved in plant neighbor detection or pest identification, and they induce the production and release of plant defensive metabolites. Through the signaling chemicals, plants can either detect or identify competitors, herbivores, or pathogens, and respond by increasing defensive metabolites levels, providing an advantage for their own growth. The plant-organism interactions that are mediated by Allelochemicals and signaling chemicals take place both aboveground and belowground. In the case of aboveground interactions, mediated air-borne chemicals are well established. Belowground interactions, particularly in the context of soil-borne chemicals driving signaling interactions, are largely unknown, due to the complexity of plant-soil interactions. The lack of effective and reliable methods of identification and clarification their mode of actions is one of the greatest challenges with soil-borne Allelochemicals and signaling chemicals. Recent developments in methodological strategies aim at the quality, quantity, and spatiotemporal dynamics of soil-borne chemicals. This review outlines recent research regarding plant-derived Allelochemicals and signaling chemicals, as well as their roles in agricultural pest management. The effort represents a mechanistically exhaustive view of plant-organism interactions that are mediated by Allelochemicals and signaling chemicals and provides more realistic insights into potential implications and applications in sustainable agriculture.

  • Mobility and Microbial Activity of Allelochemicals in Soil
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013
    Co-Authors: Xiao-jing Li, Chui-hua Kong, Xiaohua Xu

    Abstract:

    The action of Allelochemicals in soil needs their presence in the vicinity of the target plants. Using a soil TLC combined with bioassay approach, the mobility of 10 typical Allelochemicals was evaluated. Ferulic, p-hydroxymandelic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids always had the lowest mobility (Rf 0.5). The Rf values of daidzein, 1α-angeloyloxycarotol, DIMBOA, and m-tyrosine ranged from 0.24 to 0.32. Binary mixtures of these Allelochemicals led to an increase in mobility factors for selected combinations. Phospholipid fatty acid profiling indicated that there were different soil microbial communities in the segments containing Allelochemicals residues in the developed TLC soil layer. A difference in microbial community structure occurred between two nitrogenous DIMBOA and m-tyrosine and another eight Allelochemicals. The results suggest that the soil activity of Allelochemicals on bioassay species…

Min An – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • 12 . Recent Advances in Wheat Allelopathy
    Allelopathy in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, 2008
    Co-Authors: Hanwen Wu, Min An, Deng Cai Liu, Jim Pratley, Deirdre Lemerle

    Abstract:

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), as one of the world’s important crops, has been studied in depth for its allelopathic potential in weed management. Research on wheat allelopathy has progressed rapidly from the initial evaluation of allelopathic potential to the identification of Allelochemicals and genetic markers associated with wheat allelopathy. Allelopathic activity varied among wheat accessions. Significant varietal differences in the production of Allelochemicals were also found. In comparison with weakly allelopathic accessions, strongly allelopathic accessions produced significantly higher amounts of Allelochemicals in the shoots or roots of young seedlings, and also exuded larger amounts of Allelochemicals into the growth medium. Genetic markers associated with wheat allelopathy and plant cytochrome P450s encoding the biosynthesis of wheat Allelochemicals have been identified. Recent advances in metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will greatly assist in the identification of novel allelopathy genes. Ultimately, the allelopathy genes could be manipulated to regulate the biosynthesis of Allelochemicals, thereby resulting in better weed suppression via elevated levels of allelopathic potential in commercial wheat cultivars.

  • Implementation of card: curve-fitting allelochemical response data.
    Nonlinearity in Biology Toxicology and Medicine, 2005
    Co-Authors: Min An

    Abstract:

    : Bioassay techniques are essential methods used to study the effects of Allelochemicals on plant processes. It is often observed that the biological processes are stimulated at low allelochemical concentrations and inhibited as the concentrations increase. Liu et al., (2003) developed a simple model to fit this type of allelochemical response data. Based on the model, CARD (curve-fitting allelochemical response data) was developed as a Windows based program that can be used to fit a stimulation-inhibition response data. An example of using CARD is given.

  • mathematical modelling of allelopathy ii the dynamics of Allelochemicals from living plants in the environment
    Ecological Modelling, 2003
    Co-Authors: Min An, I R Johnson, J V Lovett

    Abstract:

    The contents of Allelochemicals in living plants, and their fate and dynamics in environment are an important aspect in the study of allelopathy. A mechanistic model developed proposes that there are two kinds of allelochemical productions in a plant, which are dictated by age and plant stress, and are reflected by the corresponding dynamics in the environment. The decline of allelochemical contents in living plants with increasing age of plants may be a general case, while periodic production may be a special case. The ecological roles of such phenomena in plant allelopathy are discussed.

Stephen O. Duke – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Is (−)-Catechin a Novel Weapon of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?
    Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Stephen O. Duke, Franck E Dayan, Amy C. Blair, Robert D. Johnson, Kumudini M. Meepagala, Daniel Cook, Joanna Bajsa

    Abstract:

    The novel weapons hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by Allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e., the novel weapon). In their native habitat, however, the plants that co-evolved with these invasive species have theoretically evolved defenses that obviate the allelochemical advantage. Previous studies have claimed that catechin is such a novel weapon of spotted knapweed ( Centaurea stoebe = C. maculosa ), an invasive species in the non-native habitat of North America. These studies indicated that (−)-catechin is more phytotoxic than (+)-catechin. Other studies have not found sufficient catechin in field soils to support this theory. We report that (−)-catechin and (+)-catechin are essentially equal, but poorly phytotoxic to a variety of plant species in bioassays without soil. In a dose/response experiment with Montana soils, we found the lowest dose for a growth reduction of two native Montana grasses ( Koeleria macrantha and Festuca idahoensis ) by a racemic mixture of (±)-catechin that ranged from about 25 to 50 mM, concentrations, orders of magnitude higher than expected in nature. Autoclaving the soil before adding the catechin did not affect the activity of catechin. We found (−)-catechin to be a potent antioxidant, in contrast to a previous claim that it acts as an allelochemical by causing oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that catechin is not a novel weapon of spotted knapweed and that other allelochemical(s) or alternative mechanisms must be found to explain the success of this species as an invader in North America.

  • biological activity of Allelochemicals
    , 2009
    Co-Authors: Franck E Dayan, Stephen O. Duke

    Abstract:

    All plants produce compounds that are phytotoxic to another plant species at some concentration. In some cases, these compounds function, at least in part, in plant/plant interactions, where a phytotoxin donor plant adversely affects a target plant, resulting in an advantage for the donor plant. This review discusses how such an allelochemical role of a phytotoxin can be proven and provides examples of some of the more studied phytochemicals that have been implicated in allelopathy. These include artemisinin, cineoles, β-triketones, catechin, sorgoleone, juglone and related quinones, rice Allelochemicals, benzoxazinoids, common phenolic acids, l-DOPA, and m-tyrosine. Mechanisms of avoiding autotoxicity in the donor species are also discussed.

  • Ecophysiological aspects of allelopathy
    Planta, 2003
    Co-Authors: Stephen O. Duke

    Abstract:

    Allelochemicals play an important role in explaining plant growth inhibition in interspecies interactions and in structuring the plant community. Five aspects of Allelochemicals are discussed from an ecophysiological perspective: (i) biosynthesis, (ii) mode of release, (iii) mode of action, (iv) detoxification and prevention of autotoxicity, and (v) joint action of Allelochemicals. A discussion on identifying a compound as an allelochemical is also presented.