Best Experts & Science about Phage Display
Sidhu, Sachdev S.
Phage display In Biotechnology and Drug Discovery
The first and only guide to showcase the impact of phage display technology on drug discovery, this reference details the theories, principles, and methods impacting the field and demonstrates applications for peptide phage display, protein phage display, and the development of novel antibodies. Highlighting the current and future role of phage display in the development of protein therapeutics, this book provides a comprehensive overview that will prove invaluable to anyone researching recombinant antibodies. Daniel E. Levy, editor of the Drug Discovery Series, is the founder of DEL BioPharma, a consulting service for drug discovery programs. He also maintains a blog that explores organic chemistry.
Engineering M13 for phage display
phage display is achieved by fusing polypeptide libraries to phage coat proteins. The resulting phage particles display the polypeptides on their surfaces and they also contain the encoding DNA. Library members with particular functions can be isolated with simple selections and polypeptide sequences can be decoded from the encapsulated DNA. The technology’s success depends on the efficiency with which polypeptides can be displayed on the phage surface, and significant progress has been made in engineering M13 bacteriophage coat proteins as improved phage display platforms. Functional display has been achieved with all five M13 coat proteins, with both N- and C-terminal fusions. Also, coat protein mutants have been designed and selected to improve the efficiency of heterologous protein display, and in the extreme case, completely artificial coat proteins have been evolved specifically as display platforms. These studies demonstrate that the M13 phage coat is extremely malleable, and this property can be used to engineer the phage particle specifically for phage display. These improvements expand the utility of phage display as a powerful tool in modern biotechnology. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
phage display in pharmaceutical biotechnology
Over the past year, methods for the construction of M13 phage–display libraries have been significantly improved and new display formats have been developed. phage–displayed peptide libraries have been used to isolate specific ligands for numerous protein targets. New phage antibody libraries have further expanded the practical applications of the technology and phage cDNA libraries have proven useful in defining natural binding interactions. In addition, phage–display methods have been developed for the rapid determination of binding energetics at protein-protein interfaces.
ORFeome phage display
© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018. ORFeome phage display allows the efficient functional screening of entire proteomes or even metaproteomes to identify immunogenic proteins. For this purpose, randomly fragmented, whole genomes or metagenomes are cloned into a phage–display vector allowing positive selection for open reading frames (ORF) to improve the library quality. These libraries display all possible proteins encoded by a pathogen or a microbiome on the phage surface. Consequently, immunogenic proteins can be selected from these libraries using disease-related immunoglobulins from patient serum. ORFeome phage display in particular allows the identification of immunogenic proteins that are only expressed in the host-pathogen interaction but not in cultivation, as well as the detection of very low expressed and very small immunogens and immunogenic proteins of non-cultivable organisms. The identified immunogenic proteins are potential biomarkers for the development of diagnostic assays or vaccines. These articles will give an introduction to ORFeome phage–display technology and give detailed protocols to identify immunogenic proteins by phage display.
phage display-derived human antibodies in clinical development and therapy
Over the last 3 decades, monoclonal antibodies have become the most important class of therapeutic biologicals on the market. Development of therapeutic antibodies was accelerated by recombinant DNA technologies, which allowed the humanization of murine monoclonal antibodies to make them more similar to those of the human body and suitable for a broad range of chronic diseases like cancer and autoimmune diseases. In the early 1990s in vitro antibody selection technologies were developed that enabled the discovery of “fully” human antibodies with potentially superior clinical efficacy and lowest immunogenicity. Antibody phage display is the first and most widely used of the in vitro selection technologies. It has proven to be a robust, versatile platform technology for the discovery of human antibodies and a powerful engineering tool to improve antibody properties. As of the beginning of 2016, 6 human antibodies discovered or further developed by phage display were approved for therapy. In 2002, adalimumab (Humira?)becamethe first phage display-derived antibody granted a marketing approval. Humira? was also the first approved human antibody, and it is currently the best-selling antibody drug on the market. Numerous phage display-derived antibodies are currently under advanced clinical investigation, and, despite the availability of other technologies such as human antibody-producing transgenic mice, phage display has not lost its importance for the discovery and engineering of therapeutic antibodies. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview about phage display-derived antibodies that are approved for therapy or in clinical development. A selection of these antibodies is described in more detail to demonstrate different aspects of the phage display technology and its development over the last 25 years.
Oligopeptide M13 phage display in pathogen research
phage display has become an established, widely used method for selection of peptides, antibodies or alternative scaffolds. The use of phage display for the selection of antigens from genomic or cDNA libraries of pathogens which is an alternative to the classical way of identifying immunogenic proteins is not well-known. In recent years several new applications for oligopeptide phage display in disease related fields have been developed which has led to the identification of various new antigens. These novel identified immunogenic proteins provide new insights into host pathogen interactions and can be used for the development of new diagnostic tests and vaccines. In this review we focus on the M13 oligopeptide phage display system for pathogen research but will also give examples for lambda phage display and for applications in other disease related fields. In addition, a detailed technical work flow for the identification of immunogenic oligopeptides using the pHORF system is given. The described identification of immunogenic proteins of pathogens using oligopeptide phage display can be linked to antibody phage display resulting in a vaccine pipeline.
ORF phage display to identify cellular proteins with different functions
Open reading frame (ORF) phage display is a new branch of phage display aimed at improving its efficiency to identify cellular proteins with specific binding or functional activities. Despite the success of phage display with antibody libraries and random peptide libraries, phage display with cDNA libraries of cellular proteins identifies a high percentage of non-ORF clones encoding unnatural short peptides with minimal biological implications. This is mainly because of the uncontrollable reading frames of cellular proteins in conventional cDNA libraries. ORF phage display solves this problem by eliminating non-ORF clones to generate ORF cDNA libraries. Here I summarize the procedures of ORF phage display, discuss the factors influencing its efficiency, present examples of its versatile applications, and highlight evidence of its capability of identifying biologically relevant cellular proteins. ORF phage display coupled with different selection strategies is capable of delineating diverse functions of cellular proteins with unique advantages. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Identification of calpain substrates by ORF phage display
Substrate identification is the key to defining molecular pathways or cellular processes regulated by proteases. Although phage display with random peptide libraries has been used to analyze substrate specificity of proteases, it is difficult to deduce endogenous substrates from mapped peptide motifs. phage display with conventional cDNA libraries identifies high percentage of non-open reading frame (non-ORF) clones, which encode short unnatural peptides, owing to uncontrollable reading frames of cellular proteins. We recently developed ORF phage display to identify endogenous proteins with specific binding or functional activity with minimal reading frame problem. Here we used calpain 2 as a protease to demonstrate that ORF phage display is capable of identifying endogenous substrates and showed its advantage to re-verify and characterize the identified substrates without requiring pure substrate proteins. An ORF phage display cDNA library with C-terminal biotin was bound to immobilized streptavidin and released by cleavage with calpain 2. After three rounds of phage selection, eleven substrates were identified, including calpastatin of endogenous calpain inhibitor. These results suggest that ORF phage display is a valuable technology to identify endogenous substrates for proteases.